How Did dictators use propaganda and terror to maintain their power
Two of the main stratagies that dictators such as Mussilini, Stalin and hitler used to maintain their power were propaganda and terror
Propaganda is spreading information, trying to convince people of your point of view. Newspapers, radio, posters and speechs were just some of the methods used to spread information, whether it be true, partly-true or lies.
Mussolini was a very clever propagandist. He had been a teacher so he was aware of the importance of targeting the youth of society. He had also been a journalist so he was good at playing words and convincing others of his ideas.
Education played a big role with Mussolini. He used education to teach children to be odediant and patriotic. They were taught that "Il Duce" would make Italy great again. History books were re-written to highlight the glories of Ancient Rome. Only facist teachers could teach in schools. Boys learned to become good fighters and girls to become good mothers.Youth Groups were set up and both boys and girls had to join and go after school. From the ages of 4-18, they progressed through the different groups such as th Balilla. Children were now getting propaganda inside and outside school.
Mussolini controlled the press and radio. No press was allowed that was opposing Mussolini. Existing press and radio was made to serve the facist reigime. He gave out over one million radios at low cost or else free so he could talk directly to people in their own homes. He also organised huge rallies.
Sport was also important to Mussolini as it created fit, young men and achievements cold be used for nationalist propaganda. The 1934 World Cup took place in Rome. They built many stadii across Italy. Italy won the 1934 World Cup and retained it in 1938. Primo Carnea was an Italian boxer who became a national hero after winning the world championship.
A cult of personality was set up around Mussolini. He was called Il Duce, the leader. They used photographs, newspapers, radio, cinema and newsreel film to create the image of a great leader. He was seen as all-wise and all-talented. The animal lover, sports man, worker, and ordinary man. Overall superman. Children in school were taught the "Mussolini is always right." He was seen as the new Caeser
A cult of personality was also set up around Stalin. Stalin used statutes,, posters, stamps, music, art and poetry all as forms of propaganda. He even named streets and cities after himself. History was rewritten so make him look like a hero in the civil war. All the propaganda made him like an equal to Lenin. He was seen as the new Lenin. He was worshiped as a god while he was still alive.
The 1936 constitution which allowed freedom of speech freedom of press and the right to vote was just a shoe. It was fake. Propaganda to the rest of the world. He used show triails as propaganda as well. Any problems in the economy, or if targets were not met, could be blamed on the accused, not him.
Hitler was a master of propaganda and an outstanding speaker. He spoke to their heart and used their emothions to his advantage. He used siple slogans that were easy to remember. All the uniforms salutes and mass rallies gave an impression of strength, unity and belonging. He used film and gramophone records of Nazi speeches, he had a plane which allowed him to be in many parts of Germany in one day. It gave a superman impression coming down from the sky. Joseph Goebells was Hilter's minister of propaganda. All press and radio were under Nazi control. They burned books containing antinazi ideas from authors such as Hemingway and Freuid. He created only one newspaper, The People's Observer. A small black radio that oly resieved Nazi stations was available very cheap. By 1939, 70% of Germans had a radio. Loudspeakers were placed on streets and in bars also. Short wave radio was used to broadcast to places like Austria Sudentanland and Poland.
Cinema and film was also used. Leni Reitenstah was the main film maker. She amde the Trimuph of the Will, 1934, which was based on the nuremberg rallies. A raly was hed in Nuremberg every year. The huge gatherinng gave a sense of order, strenght and unity in a chaotic society. Hitler was the centre. It was Hitler and the crowd. Pure theatre ad propaganda with marching, aprades banners and speechs. Albert Speer was the organiser.She also made the film Olympia about the 1936 olympics in Berin. A huge 100,000 seater stadium was built. Local television broadcasted the event and radio broadcasted in 50 languauges. t was a huge propaganda event.
Hitler used education to teach young Germans to be loyal, obediant Nazis. Every subject served the Nazi cause. They got propaganda not knowledge. Boys had to join Hilter Youthand girls, the league of German Madains. Hitler refered to the Germans as the master race. He thought they were superior.
Dictators also used terror as a way to maintain power. They used methods like secret police, executions, imprisonment, camps and unfair triails to cause fear in people so they wouldnt oppose or go against them.
In Italy, Mussolini set up the OVRA and Blackshirts as well as a special court for anyone who opposed him. Individual freedom was abolished. 4,000 were imprisoned and 10 were killed. Imprisoned people were sent to remote islands. He has some anti-semtic laws but he wasn't anto-semtic and didnt really inforce them they wre just to please Hitler. He was never as brutal as Stalin or Hitler.
Stalin set up the NKVD to enforce party policy. He set up the Cheka. When he wanted to elimate the Kulaks he sent groups to the countryside to kill them or send them to labour camps. He set up showtriails which were triails against any opposition to Stalin or people Stalin feared. There was no defence, and the accused were tortured before the trails to write confessions. The 1st trail got rid of Zinoviev and Kamenev and 14 other party members. The 2nd was of party memebers who supported Trotsky. There were 17, 13 of which were shot and 4 sent to labour camps. There was also the secret amry purge were 35,000 officers were shot or jailed. The 3rd show triail was of the secret police including their leader, Yagoda, who had carried out the previous showtriails.
Hilter set up the SA and then enlisted them as the police force. He also set up the SS. In June 1934, Hilter used the SS to kill the leaders of the SA. Over 1,000 people were killed including people who weren't in the SA, Hitler just didn't like them. He orgaised this because the SA, under Rohm, were planning a people's army and Hitler didn't like the idea. The SS, underHimmler, were the most important of all Nazi orgaisations. They carried out Hitler's racial policies and ran camps. The Waffen SS were a special army that wet into countries Germany had invaded and killed any opposition. The Gestapo were another police who were led by Reinhard Heydrick. They were feared by the ordinary German people. There were no fair trails. 500 were trailed and executed for opposing Hitler before the war stared.
Concentration camps and labour camps were set up. The first being Dachau outside Munich in March 1933. Communist s were sent there after they were blamed for the Reichstag fire. He had many anti semtic laws and treated jews very badly and then began killing them off in huge number.
Terror and Propaganda were two effective methods used by Mussolini, Hitler and Stalin to maintain their power and conrolling a totalitarian state.
I got an A2 for this essay, hope it is a help :)