Wednesday, 18 June 2014

Biology Revision Quesions - with Answers (part 3)

It still would not upload them all on th e2 posts for me so here are the last few!

Once again, nnot mine, i cannot take credit for this!




1357
During 2009 swine flu spread through the population of many countries. Younger people were more at risk of becoming ill with swine flu than older people. Using your knowledge of the immune system, suggest a reason for this.
(Older people) previous exposure / antibodies (or active immunity or memory cells)
1358
Give two excretory organs in the human body other than the kidney.
Skin, Lungs
1359
Give the part of the nephron in which each of the following takes place:
1. Filtration,
2. Reabsorption of amino acids.
1. Bowman's capsule or glomerulus
2. proximal tubule
1360
Suggest a reason why it is important to know a person’s blood group.
transfusion/ to avoid reaction by mother to foetus/ to prevent
loss of foetus
1361
To which kingdom does Rhizopus belong?
Fungi
1362
True or False. Rhizopus is a member of the animal kingdom.
False
1363
Explain what is meant by the axial skeleton.
vertebral column and skull (and rib cage)
1364
What is a tissue?
Cells with common function (or with common structure)
1365
Give one structural difference between DNA and RNA.
(DNA) contains thymine or RNA contains uracil
1366
Name a part of the flower from which fruit forms.
Ovary / Carpel / Receptacle
1367
Amylase is an enzyme that is found in saliva. State the substrate and the product of this enzyme.
starch
maltose
1368
True or False. Xylem transports water in plants.
True
1369
 Osmosis has been described as a special case of diffusion. Explain why.
movement of water (solvent) / along concentration gradient / through a selectively permeable membrane
1370
Suggest a treatment for a named disorder of the musculoskeletal system.
Disorder: Osteoporosis /
Treatment: Diet rich in Calcium and Vitamin D and medication
1371
Name a tissue found in plants. Give a function of the tissue referred to.
Dermal or ground or vascular (or xylem or phloem) or meristematic. Function relevant to tissue
1372
Suggest a reason why myxomatosis is no longer a major threat to the Irish rabbit population.
natural immunity or Natural Selection or virus mutated
1373
Give two features of the nephron that aid filtration.
large surface area / porous capillary walls/ (lining) one cell thick / efferent arteriole narrower than afferent arteriole or arterioles in arteriole out or arteriole to capillary network
1374
True or False. A potato is a modified stem.
True
1375
Give three examples of the ways in which fruits are involved in seed dispersal.
Animal dispersal /  Winged / Wind / Self dispersal / Water Dispersal / Human dispersal
1376
Give an account of the role of each of the following in photosynthesis: 1. ATP, 2. NADP.
1. provides or stores energy / reduction of CO2 or glucose formation or for dark stage
2. accepts electrons / hydrogen carrier / for the dark stage or glucose formation or for dark stage
1377
Name a cell organelle, apart from the nucleus, in which DNA is found.
Chloroplast / mitochondria
1378
Name a tissue found in animals. Give a function of the tissue referred to.
Epithelial or Muscular or Connective or Nervous or named example. Function relevant to tissue
1379
Outline briefly how a virus replicates (reproduces).
attaches to (host) cell / introduces nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) / (host) DNA inactivated / viral DNA or RNA replicated / using resources of host cell / protein coat formed / assembly (of virus)
1380
Genes are found on what structures within a cell?
Chromosome (allow chromatid) (Do not allow DNA)
1381
Give a function for each of the following: 1. Red marrow, 2. Cartilage, 3. Tendon.
1. formation of blood cells
2. protection (absorbs shock) or reduces friction or allows bone elongation
3. joins muscle to bone
1382
Distinguish between batch and continuous flow food processing using micro-organisms in the food industry.
Batch: fixed amount of nutrients added at beginning or (bioreactor) emptied at end of production
Continuous: nutrients continuously fed into bioreactor or product removed continuously
1383
Suggest why it is necessary for a plant to disperse its seeds.
To avoid competition / colonisation
1384
The use of one species to control the population of another species is called biological control. Suggest one advantage and one disadvantage of biological control.
Advantage: environmentally friendly or specific or (may be) inexpensive
Disadvantage: upsets balance of nature (or described e.g. predator population will fall when prey becomes scarce allowing prey to increase again or introduced species may become a pest or predator may change to a different prey) or (may be) expensive.
1385
Explain what is meant by the term tissue culture
Cells grown on (or in) medium or cells grown outside organism
1386
What is the function of the spindle during cell division?
To contract / to separate chromosomes /  chromatid / to attach
1387
Explain what is meant by an antagonistic muscle pair and give an example in the human body.
pair of muscles that have opposite effects or explained
biceps and triceps or other example
1388
True or false. Stage 1 of respiration requires oxygen.
False
1389
Name a group of biomolecules in the blood which are too large to pass through the filtration system of the nephron.
Proteins
1390
Is the blood in the Aorta oxygenated or deoxygenated?
Oxygenated
1391
Following dispersal most seeds enter a period of dormancy. What is dormancy?
a period of rest, inactivity or non-vegetative state before growth
1392
Tissues grow by cell division. Name the type of cell division by which tissues grow.
Mitosis
1393
Give one application of tissue culture.
Appropriate application
1394
Name the nitrogenous bases whose first letters are A and C.
Adenine and Cytosine
1395
Apart from water, name one other substance which is found in sweat.
urea/ salt/ named salt/ lipids/ hormones
1396
What is meant by sterile?
Free from all organisms
1397
Name the container in which you grew the leaf yeast.
Petri dish / (agar) plate
1398
Organs are found in both plants and animals. What is meant by the term organ?
A group of tissues / Structure composed of two or more tissues
1399
State the location in the human body of the following muscles which are used for breathing: diaphragm, intercostals.
Below the lungs and above the stomach
Between the ribs
1400
To which kingdom does Amoeba belong?
Protista or  Protoctista
1401
Give an advantage of dormancy.
Ensures springtime germination
1402
Give one reason why the wall of the left ventricle is thicker than the wall of the right ventricle.
Left ventricle pumps blood around body. Right ventricle only pumps blood to the nearby lungs
1403
True or false. Stage 1 of respiration takes place in the cytoplasm.
True
1404
Name one organ found in plants.
Leaf / Root / Stem / Bud / Tuber / Flower/ bulbs/ Rhizome …
1405
How did you measure the breathing rate or the pulse?
count number of breaths or number of pulses / per unit time OR sensor (data logger)
1406
Where in the cell would you expect to find most DNA?
Nucleus
1407
Is the cell of Amoeba prokaryotic or eukaryotic? Give a reason for your answer.
Eukaryotic. Membrane-bound  organelles or named  membrane-bound  organelle
1408
What is meant by the germination of seeds?
Is the beginning of the growth after a period of dormancy
1409
Name the stage in the plant’s life cycle that follows dormancy.
Germination
1410
What is meant by pollution?
Any harmful addition to the ecosystem (e.g. not acceptable)
1411
What is meant by nitrogen fixation?
The conversion of nitrogen into nitrates.
1412
Give an example of pollution which may result from domestic (household) or industrial or agricultural activity.
Littering
1413
True or false. Stage 2 of respiration takes place in the cytoplasm.
False
1414
Give one function of the contractile vacuole in Amoeba.
Osmoregulation or explained
1415
Describe briefly one way by which the skin helps to retain heat in cold conditions.
(erect) hair / hair traps air / arteriole contracts (and keeps blood warm) / pores close / adipose (tissue) / Goose pimples
1416
Name one human activity that causes pollution.
Any relevant activity but not naturally occurring catastrophe
1417
What is a chromosome?
A structure made of DNA and protein which can be inherited.
1418
State one way in which it is possible to produce seedless fruits in horticulture.
e.g. (Growth) regulators
1419
What is the role of the bicuspid valve?
stops back flow (of blood) / blood from atrium to ventricle
1420
Name two habitats from the ecosystem you have studied.
Ecosystem: Woodland
Habitats: Rotting log / beneath a stone
1421
Suggest one reason why a contractile vacuole is more active in freshwater amoebae than in marine amoebae.
Freshwater more hypotonic or more H2O intake or reference to concentration difference
1422
State two problems associated with waste disposal in Ireland.
1.        e.g. Finding land for landfill sites
2.        e.g. Litter / pollution or named form of pollution .
1423
For hair colour black (B) is dominant over brown (b). Seán is heterozygous (Bb) and Máire is homozygous (bb). 1. What colour is Seán’s hair? 2. What colour is Máire’s hair?
1. Black
2. Brown
1424
DNA contains the instructions needed to make protein. These instructions are called the … code.
Genetic
1425
How may apparatus be sterilised?
In an autoclave @121 °C for 15 minutes
1426
Write the balanced equation for photosynthesis.
light energy
6CO2 + 6H2O à C6H12O6 + 6O2
chlorophyll
1427
Seeds may remain inactive for a period before germination. What term is used to describe this period of inactivity?
Dormancy
1428
List two ways of minimising waste.
Reduce / Reuse / Recycle
1429
Red hair in humans is recessive to all other hair colours. A red-haired woman and a black-haired man, whose own father was red-haired, started a family. What is the % chance of obtaining offspring with red hair?
50%
1430
Give a brief account of the Theory of Natural Selection.
organisms have variations / that are inherited/ beneficial / will reproduce/ struggle for existence / pass on these variations / ‘Survival /of fittest’ / origin of species
1431
True or false. Some of the energy released in respiration is lost as heat.
True
1432
In what main part of a plant does most photosynthesis take place?
Leaf
1433
What is meant by evolution?
The way organisms change genetically from pre-existing forms to produce new species over long periods of time
1434
Give one example of the use of microorganisms in waste management.
e.g. Breaks down waste / in sewage treatment plants
1435
What is the main source of light for photosynthesis?
The sun
1436
In Dalmatian dogs the allele for brown spots is recessive to the allele for black spots. The two parents were heterozygous in respect of spot colour. What is the % chance of obtaining offspring with black spots?
75%
1437
Suggest two ways to prevent or control pollution.
Reduce, reuse, recycle
1438
Name a group of organisms involved in nitrogen fixation.
Bacteria / Monera / Lichens/ Clover / Legumes
1439
The haploid number of chromosomes is found in the human egg and sperm. Explain the underlined term.
Having one set of chromosomes
1440
Carbohydrates always contain the elements carbon, hydrogen and …
Oxygen
1441
Bile is involved in digestion in the human body. 1. Where is bile produced? 2. Where is bile stored? 3. Where does bile act in the alimentary canal?
1. liver
2. gall bladder
3. Duodenum / (small) intestine / ileum
1442
In which part of the flower is pollen produced?
Anther of the stamen
1443
In roses there is incomplete dominance between the allele governing red petals and the allele governing white petals. Heterozygous individuals have pink petals. A plant with pink petals was crossed with a plant with white petals. What is the % chance of obtaining offspring with white petals?
50%
1444
During photosynthesis water molecules are split into three products. Name each of these products. Describe what happens to each of the products.
Electrons, Protons (H+), Oxygen
Electrons – to chlorophyll / reference to energy / ATP
Protons / H (ions) - Pathway 2 / Dark Stage / general proton pool
Oxygen – Respiration / Excreted
1445
What is meant by pollution?
The harmful addition to the environment (by humans) that leaves it less able to sustain life
1446
Lipids are made up of fatty acids and …
Glycerol
1447
What is meant by egestion? From where does egestion occur?
Removal of unabsorbed material from the body. From the rectum via the anus.
1448
True or false. Lactic acid is a product of anaerobic respiration.
True
1449
Write a short paragraph (about 5 lines) on waste management.
waste produced / must be disposed safely / recycled / re-used / reduce / example of waste / how managed / role of micro-organisms
1450
In the fruit fly Drosophila the allele for full wing is dominant to the allele for vestigial wing. One parent was homozygous in respect of full wing and the other parent was heterozygous. What is the % chance of obtaining offspring with full wing?
100%
1451
What is the role of peristalsis in the digestive system?
push food along gut / mechanical digestion / prevents constipation
1452
Name a fat-soluble vitamin.
A / D / E / K
1453
Name the structures in which photosynthesis occurs in plant cells.
Chloroplasts
1454
Name one of the scientists associated with the Theory of Natural Selection.
Darwin / Wallace
1455
What is meant by pollination?
Transfer / of pollen / from anther to stigma
1456
Where in the eye is the retina located?
back of the eye
1457
Give an example of a catabolic reaction in a cell.
Respiration or fermentation or glycolysis       [allow digestion]
1458
Name a structural carbohydrate found in plants.
Cellulose
1459
Explain the terms: allele and dominant.
Allele: An alternative form of a gene
Dominant: One allele masks the expression of the other
1460
What is the role of alveoli in the lungs?
exchange gases/ carbon dioxide out/ oxygen in / increase surface area / diffusion
1461
What is meant by the term aerobic respiration?
The release of energy from carbohydrate using oxygen
1462
Water enters the roots of plants by osmosis. Explain what is meant by osmosis.
movement of water through semi-permeable membrane / from region of high osmotic potential to low osmotic potential / from high concentration of water to low concentration of water / from dilute solution to concentrated solution
1463
What process follows pollination in the life cycle of a flowering plant?
Fertilisation
1464
Name one good source of protein in the human diet.
(Lean) Meat / Fish / Cheese / Eggs / Pulses
(Do not accept Dairy Products)
1465
What is a triglyceride?
Fat (or lipid or oil) unit (or molecule) or glycerol and three fatty acids or ester
1466
In what cell structure does photosynthesis take place?
Chloroplast
1467
Name the tissue that transports water from the root to the leaves.
Xylem
1468
What is blood plasma? Give a role for blood plasma.
Plasma:  blood without cells/ watery liquid part of blood
Role: carries dissolved substances / named substance / waste
/ hormones / gases / blood clotting agent/ water / antibodies /
proteins / inorganic salts / fibrinogen / CO2 / Bicarbonate / Heat
1469
Indicate clearly whether each of the following statements refers to stage 1 or to stage 2 of respiration. A. Takes place in the mitochondria, B. Produces a large amount of energy, C. Takes place in the cytoplasm, D. Does not require oxygen.
A.       Stage 2
B.       Stage 2
C.        Stage 1
D.       Stage 1
1470
Outline the evidence for evolution from any one named source.
Fossils / comparative anatomy / embryos / DNA changes / Horse /
bones
1471
Vitamins may be divided into two groups depending upon their solubility. Name these two groups.
Fat-soluble
Water-soluble
1472
Where do the products of digestion enter the blood?
Stomach / ileum / intestine /villi / (colon) / shoulder vein
1473
Give an example of a beneficial organism and of a harmful organism that belong to the same kingdom as Rhizopus.
Beneficial: Yeast for baking and brewing
Harmful: ringworm – parasitic fungus
1474
List three characteristics in each case of;
1. An insect-pollinated flower,
2. A wind-pollinated flower.
1. brightly coloured petals / anthers within petals, nectaries,
2. feathery stigmas, anthers outside petals, petals absent or reduced
1475
Name a breathing disorder. Suggest a possible cause of it and state how it may be treated.
Asthma
Cause: narrowing of the bronchioles and mucus secretion
Treatment: steroid tablets or inhalers
Bronchitis
Cause: bacteria, viruses and irritants such as cigarette smoke and air pollutants
Treatment: antibiotics if bacterial
1476
To what group of biomolecules do enzymes belong?
Proteins
1477
State one way in which an oil differs from a fat.
Oil is liquid (at room temperature) or  fat is solid or oils are unsaturated  or explained
1478
State two functions of symbiotic bacteria in the alimentary canal.
digest cellulose/ produce (release) vitamins/ keep harmful bacteria at bay / immunity (reference to health) / formation of faeces
1479
Two types of cells that receive light are found in the retina. Name each of these.
Rods and cones
1480
Name two types of cell found in the blood and give a function for each of them.
red blood cell: carries oxygen (also carries carbon dioxide)
white blood cell: defence
1481
What is the main source of energy for photosynthesis?
The sun
1482
How do these products of digestion pass into the blood?
by diffusion (into villi ) / absorption
1483
Give an example of a trace element.
e.g. Fe, Cu, Zn or other correct
1484
The action of the enzyme amylase on its substrate starch is an example of a catabolic reaction. Explain each of the underlined terms.
Substrate: the substance on which an enzyme acts to produce the product
Catabolic: Chemical reaction where larger molecules are broken down to smaller molecules
1485
The ABO blood group system has four blood groups. What are these four groups?
A, B, AB, O
1486
The optic nerve is attached to the eye. What is the function of the optic nerve?
carries message to brain
1487
Suggest two reasons why life on earth might not continue without photosynthesis.
Lack of oxygen / lack of food (energy) / plants die / excess CO2 / animals die
1488
What is meant by immobilisation of an enzyme?
An enzyme which is fixed to an inert material by chemical or physical means.
1489
In relation to the human diet, what is meant by a trace element?
Small amount (needed) or indication of e.g. < 0.01%

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