Wednesday, 18 June 2014

Biology Revision Questions - with Answers (first half)

This is the list of answers to the short questions in the previous post.


Once again I did not write these questions or answers or design the layout so I cannot take credit for it but I have it so thought it would be useful for others too!





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The following questions are taken from past Leaving Certificate Examination Papers (2004 – 2011). Questions on the same topic have been separated to provide random revision. If questions are repeated it only highlights their greater significance or importance as they have been asked more often over the years.

N.B. These questions do not cover the entire syllabus. Knowing the answers to these questions only is not a guarantee of an excellent result.





No.
Question
Answer
1
State a function of the cell membrane
Control entry into and exit from cell of substances
2
Explain how Rhizopus gets its food.
Secretes enzymes / digests / onto bread / absorbs products
3
State one feature that would allow you to identify an eukaryotic cell
Has a membrane bound nucleus
4
Name a human cell that is haploid
Sperm, ovum
5
What term is used to describe a cellular reaction in which large molecules are broken down to smaller ones?
Catabolic
6
Give two examples of harmful members of the kingdom Fungi.
Any two correct
7
In carbohydrates, which two elements are in the ratio 2:1?
Hydrogen:Oxygen
8
What term is used to describe an individual’s genetic makeup?
Genotype
9
What form of heterotrophic nutrition does Rhizopus have?
Outline the importance of this type of nutrition in nature.
Saprophytic. It breaks down dead organisms or recycling of nutrients or reusing
10
Name a scientist responsible for the Theory of Natural Selection
Darwin
11
Name two tissues that are present in the walls of arteries and veins and give a function of each of these tissues.
Muscle – contractile tissue
Elastin – return to orig. shape
12
Name another form of nutrition employed by some fungi, other than heterotrophic.
Parasitic
13
What is an hypothesis?
Educated guess
14
What is the source of the heat that keeps the body at a fairly constant temperature?
Respiration of carbohydrates
15
Cellulose is a polysaccharide. Explain the term polysaccharide.
Composed of many sugar units
16
To what kingdom does Rhizopus belong?
Fungi
17
To which group of molecules do enzymes belong?
Proteins
18
Saprophytic nutrition is a form of heterotrophic nutrition. What does the term heterotrophic mean?
Obtains food from other organisms or does not make its own food
19
To which kingdom do yeasts belong?
Fungi
20
State a location in a flowering plant where a growth regulator is secreted
Meristem
21
Give one advantage of bioprocessing using an immobilised enzyme.
Efficiency not affected. Easily recovered from the product. Reusable this cuts costs
22
Give an example of the use of a synthetic growth regulator.
Weed-killers
23
Name one economically harmful fungus. 
Rhizopus or mildew or rusts or smuts or blight or Dry rot (fungus) or athlete’s foot (fungus) or any other correct
24
The nutrition of Rhizopus is described as being saprophytic.
1.       What does the term saprophytic mean?
2.       Explain the importance of saprophytic nutrition in the overall scheme of nature.
1.        Feeding on dead matter
2.        Breakdown of dead matter or breakdown of organic matter or recycling
25
State a role for cellulose in living organisms.
Support in plants. Roughage in human diet
26
Name a polysaccharide other than cellulose.
Starch
27
Describe a test for a named polysaccharide.
Starch + Iodine à Blue/black colour
28
What is meant by the term segregation as used in genetics?
Separation of a pair of allelic genes during the process of meiosis and gamete formation
29
In relation to protein synthesis what is transcription.
the making of RNA from a single strand of DNA
30
State a function of the rhizoids of Rhizopus.
Digestion or secretion or absorption or anchorage
31
Mushrooms belong to the Fungi kingdom. A restaurant owner decides to collect and cook wild mushrooms from a local forest.
Suggest one reason why this may not be a good idea.
Some could be poisonous
32
Write a balanced equation to summarise the process of photosynthesis.
                                     light energy
6CO2 + 6H2O à C6H12O6 + 6O2
                                      chlorophyll
33
In which of the stages of photosynthesis does ATP form?
Light stage
34
Where precisely in a plant cell would you expect to find cellulose?
Cell wall
35
Veins contain valves whereas arteries do not. What is the function of the valves?
Prevent back flow of blood
36
Name the two scientists mainly associated with the cohesion-tension model of transport.
Dixon & Joly
37
Distinguish between breathing and respiration.
Breathing = the physical inhalation and exhalation
Respiration = the controlled release of energy from food, within cells
38
What structures attach a muscle to a bone?
Tendons
39
What is a ‘denatured’ enzyme?
An enzyme (highly specific organic protein catalysts) that has been destroyed by excessive heat, pH, etc. It will not 'work' again.
40
Where do cilia occur in the breathing system? What is their function?
Where: Trachea
Function: propulsion of mucus
41
Name the reagents used to test for a reducing sugar.
Fehling’s 1 & 2 or Benedict’s
42
Describe the principal features of the cohesion-tension model.
Water molecules stick together / due to H-bonding / continuous chain of water molecules / water tends to adhere to xylem walls / transpiration or water loss ‘pulls’ the column of water up
43
Name a test or give the chemicals used to demonstrate the presence of a reducing sugar.
Fehling’s 1 & 2 or Benedict’s
44
State one possible cause of asthma or bronchitis.
Asthma: of pollen, house mites, dog and cat dander or vigorous exercise
Bronchitis: bacteria, viruses and long-term exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke and air pollutants
45
Which upper arm muscle contracts to raise the lower arm?
Biceps
46
From what does a seed develop?
Ovule
47
Name an enzyme and matching substrate
Amylase + starch
Maltase + maltose
48
The cohesion-tension model of transport attempts to explain water movement in plants against a particular force. Name this force.
Gravity
49
Where does fertilisation normally occur in the reproductive system of the human female?
Half way along the Fallopian Tube (Oviduct)
50
What is a disaccharide?
A carbohydrate composed of two monosaccharide units
51
When using Fehling’s or Benedict’s solution which of the following is correct?
1. No heat needed, 2. Heat but do not boil, 3. Boil.
2. Heat but do not boil
52
What is meant by the term antagonistic pair in reference to muscles?
(Two) muscles that work in opposition to each other 
53
Where precisely does water enter a plant?
Through root hairs
54
Name the tissue in plant stems through which water rises to the leaves.
Xylem
55
Give an example of a treatment for asthma or bronchitis.
Asthma: steroid tablets or inhalers
Bronchitis: bronchodilators
56
What might a hypothesis develop into?
 A Theory
57
What do the letters ATP stand for?
Adenosine triphosphate
58
State one way in which carbohydrates differ from fats.
C, H and O in different proportions
59
Name the type of joint at the elbow.
Hinge or synovial or moveable
60
Give one way in which xylem is adapted for the transport of water.
Narrow or lignified (or rigid) or continuous lumen or wettable
61
From which structure in the seed does the root develop?
The radicle of the embryo
62
What process is responsible for the uptake of minerals in a plant?
Active transport
63
State one way in which yeast is beneficial to humans.
Baking and Brewing industries
64
State the products of segregation when an organism is heterozygous in respect of the dominant allele A.
A     and       a
65
What is meant by the term immunity?
The ability of the body to resist infection
66
Give a precise location of xylem in the stem.
In vascular bundles or next to phloem
67
Apart from movement, give one other function of the skeleton.
Protection or body support  or shape or blood cell production or muscle attachment
68
Name a monosaccharide and state a role for it in living organisms.
Glucose – energy
Ribose - RNA
69
Suggest a benefit to the plant of the phototrophic growth response.
Maximise the amount of light trapped for photosynthesis
70
When may it be considered that the process of fertilisation is complete?
When the gamete nuclei fuse.
71
State precisely the events that take place at the alveoli.
Gaseous exchange. O2 from alveolus to blood and CO2 from blood to alveolus
72
State another function of xylem tissue other than water transport.
Support or other transport function
73
How are the alveoli adapted for their function?
Have a large surface area
Walls of alveoli are elastic and only one cell thick
74
Suggest one reason why the bones of birds are almost hollow.
To be light  or  to allow flight
75
Name the reagents used to test for a protein.
Copper sulphate & Sodium hydroxide
76
Breathing rate in humans is controlled by the concentration of a gas dissolved in blood. Which gas is this?
Carbon dioxide
77
Name the nutrient medium on which you grew yeast.
Glucose solution
78
What is the function of the semi=circular canals in the ear?
Posture or balance
79
Give an example of a regulator in plants that inhibits growth.
abscisic acid and ethene
80
Cellulose is a polysaccharide. What is it formed from?
C, H and O
81
Through which microscopic structures does water enter a plant from the soil?
Root hairs
82
Energised electrons play a central role in ATP formation during photosynthesis. What is an energised electron?
Electrons containing additional energy which was picked up from the sun
83
In relation to protein synthesis what is a triplet and state the role of a triplet.
Triplet = a sequence of three nitrogenous bases of mRNA
Role = it codes for a specific amino acid
84
What is the function of the Eustachian tube in the ear?
Pressure equalisation
85
Name the organelle (component) of the cell in which photosynthesis takes place.
Chloroplast
86
Why is a control important in an experiment?
For comparison purposes
87
Give two uses of plant growth regulators in horticulture.
Producing seedless fruit
Promote ripening
Selective Weed killer
88
By what process does water enter a plant?
Osmosis
89
Suggest one way in which a person might adapt his/her lifestyle to minimise the effects of asthma or bronchitis.
Avoid smokey atmospheres
Avoid their symptom ‘trigger’
90
Name the part of the ear in which nerve impulses is generated.
Cochlea or semi-circular canals
91
State the Law of Independent Assortment.
During gamete formation each member of a pair of genes may combine randomly with either of another pair
92
In relation to flowering plants explain what is meant by vegetative propagation.
A type of reproduction in plants that does not involve the production of seed
93
Distinguish between endospermic and non-endospermic seeds.
Endospermic: a seed whose main food store is in the endosperm (nutritive tissue found within the embryo sac of a seed plant)
Non-endospermic: main food store for developing embryo is in cotyledons
94
Explain what is meant by germ layers and name the germ layers that appear in early human development.
Layer of cells / in the blastula (embryo) / (potential to) give rise to (specific) tissues (or organs)
Three layers: ectoderm, mesoderm & endoderm
95
Name the tissue that water travels through in a plant.
Xylem or Dermal or Ground or Vascular or Phloem
96
In what part of the eye are nerve impulses generated?
Retina or named part of retina
97
Define predation.
The act of killing and eating another animal (or organism) for food.
98
Give an example of the use of a synthetic growth regulator.
Selective weed killer
99
Name the process responsible for the entry of water into a plant.
Osmosis
100
In which tissue does water ascend through the plant?
Xylem
101
How do phospholipids differ from other lipids?
Are lipids with one of its fatty acids replaced with a phosphate group
102
Suggest one way by which the ear may be protected.
Skull (or bone) or wax or wear ear protection or avoid noisy environments
103
Name one process that causes water to move upwards in a plant.
Root pressure or cohesion or adhesion or capillarity or transpiration
104
To which group of blood cells do lymphocytes belong?
White blood cells
105
Explain the term niche.
The functional role of an organism (in an ecosystem)
106
Explain the part played by NADP- in photosynthesis.
It traps and transfers energised electrons and hydrogen ions.
107
Comment on the difficulty of describing a virus as a living organism.
non-cellular / one nucleic acid / can reproduce in host cell only or obligate parasite / do not possess organelles or named organelle
108
Explain how a corrective measure for a named defect of hearing or vision works.
Named defect
Corrective measure or how this works to correct named defect
109
Distinguish between active and passive immunity.
Active = When the body produces its own antibodies – long term protection
Passive = The body receives ready-made antibodies to combat infection – short term protection
110
Consider that night has fallen and the plant is in darkness.
Suggest what will happen to the amount of water moving through the plant and give a reason for your answer.
(The amount of water moving through the plant) decreases (Because) photosynthesis stops or stomata close in darkness or night-time is cooler
111
The hammer (malleus) is a very small bone located in the …
Middle ear
112
Name an anabolic process carried out by plants.
Photosynthesis
113
In relation to protein synthesis describe the role of tRNA.
Carries specific amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosomes where they are joined together, in an order determined by the sequence of bases on the mRNA attached to the ribosomes.
114
State the precise location of the cell membrane in plant cells.
Immediately inside the cell wall
115
Bile is secreted by the …
Liver
116
Tiny holes called … allow gases to enter and leave the leaf.
Stomata
117
State two ways by which plants have adapted to protect themselves. 
Thorns / stings / bad taste / poison / mimicry / cuticle / heat shock proteins
118
Bones are joined to other bones by …
Ligaments
119
An animal that eats both plants and animals is called an …
Omnivore
120
With what type of cell do you associate membrane-bound organelles?
Eukaryotic
121
What is a placenta? From what tissues does a placenta form?
A structure attached to the inner surface of the womb (uterus) of pregnant mammals, which helps to nourish the foetus, and discharges its waste.
122
Give an example of predation by naming a predator and its prey.
Predator = fox,
Prey = rabbit
123
Suggest one reason why enzymes are not found in body soap or shampoo.
May digest skin
124
What is meant by fertilisation?
Fusion of gametes or formation of zygote
125
Describe how virus reproduction takes place in a host cell.
Attaches to host. Inserts nucleic acid into cell – takes over cell’s DNA. Makes numerous copies of it – new viruses assembled and cell bursts to release them.
126
What term is used to describe bacterial cells, i.e. no membrane-bound organelles?
Prokaryotic
127
Name a polysaccharide that has a different role to cellulose. What is the role of the polysaccharide that you have named?
Starch
Role: storage carbohydrate
128
Give two examples of natural vegetative propagation that involve different parts of a plant.
Rhizomes (Stem), Bulbs (Leaves), Tubers (Root & Stem)
129
What term is used for the form of asexual reproduction in bacteria?
Binary fission
130
Describe two ways in which the skin helps to defend the body against pathogenic micro-organisms.
Continuous unbroken layer
Sweat contains bactericidal agents
131
Name the part of the flower in each case
1.       Where fertilisation occurs
2.       That becomes the fruit.
1. Embryo sac or ovule or ovary or carpel
2. Carpel or ovary or receptacle
132
The cell membrane is described as being selectively permeable. What does this mean?
Only some substances are allowed through
133
Explain the term edaphic.
Factors relating to the soil [which affects the distribution of organisms in a (terrestrial) ecosystem]
134
What is meant by the diploid number of a cell?
Chromosomes in pairs (two sets of chromosomes).
135
In which stage of photosynthesis does carbon dioxide provide carbon for carbohydrate formation?
Dark Stage
136
State one difference between the seeds of monocotyledons and dicotyledons other than the number of seed leaves.
Monocotyledon: Parallel venation, scattered vascular bundles, petals in multiples of 3
Dicotyledon: Network venation, vascular bundles in a ring, petals in multiples of 4 or 5
137
Name the two main chemical components of a virus.
Protein coat and
DNA or RNA
138
Why is diffusion alternatively known as passive transport?
No (or little) energy (or ATP) required
139
Each seed is made up of an embryo, a food store and a seed coat (testa). One function of fruit is to aid dispersal.
Explain each of the underlined terms.
(Embryo): (part of seed that) becomes the new plant
(Dispersal): Spreading of seeds.
140
What does the term pathogenic mean in relation to bacteria?
Disease causing organism
141
Give an example of an edaphic factor
Available (soil) water, mineral content, pH, humus
142
What is an enzyme?
Highly specific organic protein catalysts
143
What is meant by the germination of a seed?
Is the beginning of the growth after a period of dormancy
144
Osmosis may be described as “a special case of diffusion”. Explain why.
Movement of water or (osmosis) requires a membrane
145
Suggest a benefit of artificial propagation.
Varieties maintained
Pollination, Dispersal & Germination eliminated
146
By which method are the seeds of the fruits of blackberries and sycamore fruit dispersed?
(Blackberries):     Animals
(Sycamore fruit): Wind
147
State one factor that decreases heart rate and one factor that increases it.
Decrease = low body temperature / fitness / sedatives
Increase = high body temperature / dehydration / exercise / fear / pain / caffeine / stress
148
Name a fat-soluble vitamin, a good source of it and a deficiency disease caused by it.
Fat-soluble: Vitamin D
Source: Liver, Eggs, Sunlight
Deficiency: Rickets & Osteomalacia
149
Where are the discs in the human backbone?
Between the vertebrae
150
Name the structure by which Amoeba gets rid of excess water that has entered by osmosis.
Contractile vacuole
151
Name the artery that supplies the heart muscle with blood.
Coronary artery
152
What is meant by the term DNA profiling?
Producing a picture of pieces of DNA when an organism’s DNA is broken up using specific enzymes and then sorted by size on a gel. The result is a bit like a bar code.
153
What term is given to the growth of an embryo into a plant?
Germination
154
Name two types of lymphocyte and state a role of each.
T-cells: do not produce antibodies but are either helper, killer, suppressor or memory cells
B-cells: produce antibodies
155
To where does the pulmonary artery carry blood?
To the lungs
156
What is meant by the term metabolism?
All the chemical reactions in living cells
157
What is meant by the term evolution?
The way organisms change genetically from pre-existing forms to produce new species over long periods of time.
158
What is the function of the discs in the human backbone?
Prevent vertebrae rubbing off each other. To allow a little movement. To act as shock absorbers
159
What is a tissue?
Group of similar cells.
160
In order for germination to be successful, certain environmental conditions must be present. Name any two of these conditions.
Suitable temperature / moisture / O
161
Clones are genetically identical individuals. Are the products of vegetative propagation clones? Explain your answer.
Yes. They only have one parent and their genotype is that of their parent.
162
“Enzymes are essential for metabolism”.
Explain why this statement is true.
Enzymes are catalysts
Enzymes control rate of metabolic reactions
163
What do bacteria form when environmental conditions become unfavourable?
Endospores
164
State three functions of a root.
Absorb water and minerals
Support the plant
Sometime to store food
165
What is a cotyledon?
A seed leaf, a food store.
166
Give a role for each of the following in the human body: (i) Yellow bone marrow, (ii) Red bone marrow.
Yellow: Contains fat-storage tissue
Red: Produces blood cells
167
Describe the process of birth.
Oxytocin increases / Progesterone decreases / Uterus contracts / waters break / cervix dilates / baby out / usually head first / cord cut / placenta out
168
Is the following process anabolic or catabolic? Protein synthesis.
Anabolic
169
What is the function of the bicuspid valve?
Prevents blood flowing from the left ventricle to the left atrium when the ventricle contracts
170
What is the average resting rate of the human heart in beats per minute?
72
171
Name two minerals required by the human body and give their functions
Iron – haemoglobin formation
Calcium – bone & teeth growth
172
State three environmental factors that are necessary for germination.
Water, Oxygen, Suitable temperature
173
What is the purpose of vaccination?
To introduce antigens causing the body to produce corresponding antibodies to gain immunity to that infection
174
Is the following process anabolic or catabolic? Conversion of ADP to ATP.
Anabolic
175
Give any one biological benefit of breastfeeding.
Ideal nutrient or antibodies or mother-baby bond or reduced infection
176
What is the function of mitosis in single-celled organisms?
Reproduction
177
Describe two techniques of artificial vegetative propagation that are used for flowering plants.
Cuttings, Layering, Grafting,
178
Complete the following equation, which is a summary of aerobic respiration.
C6H12O6 + 6O2 à
Energy + 6CO2 + 6H2O
179
State two uses of DNA profiling.
Paternity disputes, Forensic Science, Genetic Screening, Genetic Archaeology
180
Is the following process anabolic or catabolic? Reactions in which product molecules are larger than substrate molecules.
Anabolic
181
Give an example of an herbivore and of a carnivore found in an ecosystem you have studied (not domesticated or farm animals).
Herbivore: rabbit
Carnivore: fox
182
List two methods of contraception.
Condom / pill / IUD / cap / diaphragm / Spermicide / mucus monitoring / sympto-thermal / vasectomy / tubectomy / Surgical / chemical / mechanical / natural / rhythm / implants
183
Give one function of mitosis in multicellular organisms.
Growth of organism
184
Farmers add nitrates as fertilizers to the soil. They are advised not to spread fertilizers if heavy rain is forecast. Why do you think they are given this warning?
To prevent nitrates from entering streams and rivers. To prevent eutrophication.
185
What is the source of energy for the earth’s ecosystems?
Sun
186
State one way by which an enzyme may be denatured.
High temperature or high (or low) pH or agitation (or described) or high salinity or alcohol
187
Explain what is meant by pollution.
The harmful addition to the environment (by humans) that leaves it less able to sustain life
188
To what structure does the ureter link the kidney?
Bladder
189
Give two functions of the placenta.
To allow nutrients / O2 /  antibodies to pass to child / to allow CO2 out / waste to pass to mother / to synthesise progesterone / prevent mixing of blood / protect foetus from mother’s blood pressure
190
Name an organ in the human body, other than the kidney, in which excretion takes place.
Lungs, Skin
191
Give one location where mitosis occurs in flowering plants.
Meristematic zones
192
Give two features of a denatured enzyme.
Changed structure
Loss of function
193
Give two industrial uses of the anaerobic respiration of yeast.
Baking & brewing industries
194
To which kingdom does Rhizopus belong?
Fungi
195
State a function of the sepal.
Protects the flower when it is a bud
196
From what tissues is the placenta formed?
Mother’s and child’s
197
Where does filtration occur in the kidney?
In the glomerulus.
198
Apart from carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, there is one other element always present in the building blocks of enzymes. Name that element.
Nitrogen
199
Name the liquid part of blood.
Plasma
200
What is genetic engineering?
Manipulation or alteration of genes
201
Give an example of pollution and describe how this form of pollution can be controlled.
Example & Control measure
202
Name the process that takes place in plants in which this energy is converted to a usable form.
Photosynthesis
203
Describe the process of natural selection.
The way nature selects organisms with advantageous genes which allow them to adapt to the environment, and pass them on to successive generations
204
In a classroom investigation into the factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis the variable investigated was either light intensity or CO2 concentration. How was the rate of photosynthesis measured?
Counted bubbles (or measured volume) / per unit time OR
datalogging / named sensor (or mention of time)
205
From what part of the embryo plant within the seed does the root develop?
Radicle
206
Name two vascular tissues found in flowering plants.
Xylem and Phloem
207
Name three processes involved in genetic engineering.
Isolation, Cutting, Ligation, Insertion, Transformation, Expression
208
Name an important group of biomolecules that plants make from nitrates.
Proteins
209
Name two male secondary sexual characteristics.
Deep voice / enlarged testes / enlarged penis / facial hair / chest hair / underarm hair / pubic hair / extra sebum / distinctive musculature / Sexual aggression / Increase sex drive
210
In a classroom investigation into the factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis the variable investigated was either light intensity or CO2 concentration. Name a factor that must be kept constant during this investigation.
Light (if CO2 addressed) or CO2 (if light addressed) or temperature
211
Aerobic respiration is a two-stage process. The first stage takes place in the cytoplasm. Where does the second stage take place?
Mitochondria
212
Name an autotrophic organism
Grass
213
Give an example of a catabolic reaction
Respiration
214
The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to nitrates by bacteria is called …
Nitrogen fixation
215
Give an example of an application of genetic engineering in each of the following cases: 1. A micro-organism, 2. An animal, 3. A plant.
M/O: Production of human insulin
Animal: Sheep producing blood clotting factors
Plant: Production of Golden Rice – possible solution to Vitamin A deficiency
216
What is meant by the term evolution?
Inheritable change within a population (or species) / in response to change in the environment / by natural selection / over time
217
Name the principal male sex hormone.
Testosterone
218
What is the ratio of hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms in a carbohydrate?
H:O::2:1
219
A relationship between two organisms in which both benefit is called ...
Symbiotic
220
In which part of the flower is pollen produced?
Anther of the stamen
221
An example of a protein that has a structural role is ...
Keratin, myosin
222
Name either of the scientists responsible for the Theory of Natural Selection.
Darwin or Wallace
223
What term is used by biologists to describe differences within a population with respect to features such as height?
Variation
224
What is the function of the sperm duct (vas deferens)?
To carry sperm or semen
225
Why is a dicotyledonous (dicot) plant so called?
Because it contains two seed leaves
226
What is a mutation?
Change in the genetic make up
227
What is the function of the stomata?
To allow gaseous exchange
228
Distinguish between the members of each of the following pairs of terms, by writing a sentence about each member of each pair: Gene and allele.
Gene: a section of DNA that codes for one polypeptide (or protein or trait) or unit of heredity
Allele: an alternative form of a gene
229
Name two substances that are dissolved in the liquid part of blood.
Glucose, minerals, vitamins, hormones, etc.
230
Name a plant in which the leaves are modified for food storage
Tulip, daffodil, etc.
231
From what part of the digestive system does the digested food enter the blood?
Small intestine or duodenum or ileum or jejunum
232
Give an example of a human activity that results in the pollution of air or water
Air: Burning fossil fuel
Water: excessive use of fertiliser - eutrophication
233
Name a dicotyledonous plant.
Broad bean, chestnut, peanut, etc.
234
Distinguish between the members of each of the following pairs of terms, by writing a sentence about each member of each pair: Homozygous and heterozygous.
Homozygous: identical alleles
Heterozygous: different alleles (of a gene)
235
What is peristalsis?
Method of moving substances (e.g. food) through tubes (e.g. intestines) by waves of rhythmic contractions and relaxations of muscles
236
Yeast cells produce ethanol (alcohol) in a process called fermentation.
Is this process affected by temperature?
Yes
237
Where would you find a meristem in a root?
At the tip – immediately behind the root cap.
238
State
1.            One role of the pancreas in digestion.
2.            One role of the gall bladder in digestion.
1. (Pancreas) -Makes enzymes or makes neutralising secretion or makes NaHCO3
2. (Gall bladder) -  Stores bile or releases bile
239
Explain the purpose of a control in a scientific experiment.
For comparison
240
Distinguish between the members of each of the following pairs of terms, by writing a sentence about each member of each pair: Genotype and phenotype.
Genotype: genetic makeup or  genes (alleles) present
Phenotype: the expression of the genotype (and environment)  or physical makeup (or appearance)
241
Explain what is meant by conservation.
The wise management of the environment or organisms
242
What is meant by germination?
It is the beginning of the growth of seeds, spores or pollen grains after a period of dormancy.
243
Name a part of a flower that may develop into a fruit.
Ovary
244
Cardiac muscle may be described as a contractile tissue. Explain the meaning of the underlined term.
Capable of shortening or contracting
245
Name the blood vessel that carries the digested food to the liver.
(Hepatic) portal vein
246
Distinguish between the members of each of the following pairs of terms, by writing a sentence about each member of each pair: Linkage and sex linkage.
Linkage: genes on the same chromosome
Sex-linkage: (located) on sex-chromosome or on X- chromosome or on Y-chromosome
247
Explain the following terms that are used in ecology: biosphere, habitat and niche.
Biosphere: the part of the planet where life occurs
Habitat: The place where an organism lives.
Niche: The functional role of an organism (in an ecosystem)
248
ATP is an abbreviation. What does it stand for?
Adenosine triphosphate
249
Name an enzyme that is involved in the digestion of fat
Lipase
250
What is an agar plate?
Petri dish containing a jelly (or solid medium)
251
Suggest a treatment that may be used for a person whose kidneys are not carrying out their normal functions.
Dialysis
252
What is meant by the term excretion?
Eliminating waste / made in the body
253
State two functions of the liver – other than the processing of digested food.
Heat generation / vitamin storage / iron storage / makes cholesterol / bile manufacture / deamination of amino acids / detoxification of poisons / plasma protein synthesis / Blood Cell breakdown
254
State one cause of mutation.
Chemicals, Radiation
255
What is homeostasis?
Maintaining a constant internal environment
256
What is the source of the heat that allows the body to maintain a constant internal temperature?
Respiration
257
What is the difference between a nucleus of an egg cell and that of a somatic (body) cell of an animal?
Egg cell – haploid
Somatic cell – diploid
258
Mention one method of excretion in flowering plants.
Diffusion or leaf fall or transpiration or through lenticels (or through stomata)
259
Why is digestion necessary in a germinating seed?
To make (food) soluble or to make (food) transportable
260
The colon contains many symbiotic bacteria – mostly ‘good’ bacteria. State two benefits we get from these bacteria.
They synthesise vitamins / they out-compete pathogens or complement immune system / break down fibre / more vitamins / more minerals
261
Give a brief account of a conservation practice with which you are familiar.
Preserving lands as wild life parks ensures that: existing environments are maintained, endangered species are preserved for reproduction, the balance of nature is maintained and pollution and its effects are reduced
262
What happens to the two polar nuclei in the carpel?
Both fertilised by male gamete nucleus to form the triploid endosperm nucleus
263
What is a germ layer?
Layer of cells / in the blastula (embryo) / (potential to) give rise to (specific) tissues (or organs)
264
Name the blood vessel that supplies blood to a kidney.
Renal artery
265
What is an auxin?
A chemical that is a plant growth regulator or a plant growth hormone (e.g. IAA), produced in the meristematic tissue of shoots, roots, young leaves and developing seeds. It stimulates cell elongation and cell division in plants.
266
State one function of the liquid part of blood.
Transport dissolved substances
267
Explain the word digestion.
The breaking down of food
268
To which group of biomolecules do enzymes belong?
Proteins
269
List three types of tropism.
Phototropism, Thigmotropism,
Chemotropism, Geotropism, Hydrotropism
270
From which blood vessel does the renal artery arise?
Aorta
271
State one feature that indicates that Rhizopus belongs to the kingdom Fungi.
No chlorophyll, no stamens, no flowers. Has stolon,  rhizoids, mycelium, hyphae, sporangium, spores
272
The hepatic portal vein carries blood from the alimentary canal to the …
Liver
273
A tendon joins … to bone.
Muscle
274
Give one role for each of the following types of teeth:
1.            Incisors
2.            Molars.
1. Cutting (food)
2. Chewing/grinding (food)
275
Hormones are secreted by … glands.
Endocrine
276
In which cavity of the body are the kidneys located?
Abdominal (cavity) or Abdomen
277
State Mendel’s Law of Segregation.
States that characters (traits) are controlled by pairs of genes (e.g. Tt) that separate (segregate) at gamete formation. Each gamete carries only one gene for the trait.
278
Give an account of the evidence for evolution from a named source.
Comparative embryology: comparing the developing embryos of vertebrates shows a similarity between certain structures, e.g. the position of the brain, eyes, gill slits and tail of the fish, tortoise, rabbit, bird, chick and human. This suggests that organisms descended from common ancestors.
279
In which part of a flower does a seed form?
Ovule
280
Gas exchange between a leaf and the atmosphere takes place through the …
Stomata
281
Peristalsis begins when food enters the oesophagus.
What is meant by peristalsis?
(muscular) contractions /in the walls of the alimentary canal/to move food
282
Name one substance, other than water, excreted in the urine.
Urea or salt  or uric acid
283
True or false.  Mitosis is the division of a nucleus into two identical nuclei
True
284
Name a substance that yeast can use to make ethanol.
Glucose, Sucrose, Starch
285
Name a factor that influences the activity of an enzyme.
Temperature, pH, substrate and product concentration
286
What is fertilisation?
The fusion (union) of a male gamete and female gamete [or two haploid gametes] to form a diploid zygote
287
Filtration ensures that cells and valuable substances are not lost from the body when urine is being formed. Name two of these substances or cells.
Glucose, Amino acids, Red and White blood cells
288
Give a feature of the kidney which indicates that it is an exocrine gland.
Has ducts or does not produce hormones
289
Describe the following changes that happen to food in the stomach:
1.            Mechanical changes
2.            Chemical changes.
1. Churned
2. pH changes or broken down by acid or broken down by enzymes or proteins → peptides
290
Name the type of joint at your elbow.
Hinge
291
Fats are composed of fatty acids and …
Glycerol
292
Explain conservation in relation to wild plants and animals.
Ensures that existing environments are maintained, endangered species are preserved for reproduction, the balance of nature is maintained and pollution and its effects are reduced
293
Name two cell organelles, other than the nucleus, that contain DNA.
Chloroplast, Mitochondria
294
Name the hormone associated with changing the permeability of the collecting duct.
Anti-diuretic hormone or ADH or vasopressin
295
State the role of the kidneys in homeostasis.
To help maintain a constant internal environment by controlling the concentration of water and salt
296
What is the pH of the stomach contents?
0 - 3
297
State two ways in which the body is insulated against loss of heat.
Subcutaneous fat = a layer of thermal insulation
Hair = Traps air
298
Name a factor that influences the diameter of the stomata.
CO2 and light
Low CO2 conc and light causes them to open
299
Which chamber of the heart has the greatest amount of muscle in its wall?
Left ventricle
300
A sample of urine was found to contain protein.
1.       Would you consider this to be normal?
2.       Explain your answer.
1.        No
2.        Protein molecules too big (to pass into the filtrate)
301
Some flowers have nectaries. How are these flowers pollinated? Explain your answer.
By insects. They are drawn to the flower for the sugary nectar.
302
Explain the terms alleles and dominant.
Allele: An alternative form of a gene
Dominant: One allele masks the expression of the other
303
Where does the partially digested food go when it leaves the stomach?
Duodenum or small intestine
304
Where precisely does fertilisation normally occur in the human female?
About half way along the Fallopian tube or oviduct
305
List the three germ layers. Relate each of the germ layers that you have listed to an organ or system in the adult body.
Ectoderm: skin, hair, nails
Mesoderm: muscles, skeleton
Endoderm: linings of the alimentary canal, trachea
306
A sample of urine was found to contain glucose.
1.       Would you consider this to be normal?
2.       Explain your answer.
1.        No
2.        Glucose (in the filtrate should have been) reabsorbed
307
Define tropism
The growth response of part of a plant to an external unidirectional stimulus
308
True or false. A sperm contains the haploid number of chromosomes
True
309
Blood contains red cells and white cells. State one function for each of these.
Red: Carry oxygen
White: Protect against disease
310
What is meant by a ‘balanced’ diet?
(One which contains) all the food types / in correct or suitable or optimum  proportions
311
What term is used to describe alleles that lie on the same chromosome?
Linked
312
What do you understand by the term adverse external environment?
Surroundings that are harmful to organism(s)
313
State one reason why a low pH is important in the stomach
To facilitate the action of pepsin and rennin
314
Name a type of modified stem that functions in food storage.
Stem tuber: potato
315
What name is given to fats that are liquid at room temperature?
Lipds
316
In ecological studies it is found that the distribution of organisms is influenced by abiotic and biotic factors. Distinguish between the underlined terms.
Abiotic = non-living
Biotic = living features
317
Distinguish between autotrophic nutrition and heterotrophic nutrition.
Autotrophic nutrition: Food synthesised from simple molecules or produces own food
Heterotrophic nutrition: already synthesised food consumed from other organisms or food from other sources
318
Give two ways in which plants protect themselves from adverse external environments.
Thick cuticle / changed transpiration (rate) / leaf fall / toxic parts / thorns / stings / dormancy / perennating organs / heat shock proteins
319
An example of a fat-soluble vitamin is … A source is … A lack causes …
D, Dairy products, Rickets
320
Explain the term species.
Organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.
321
What are the products of fat digestion?
Glycerol and fatty acids
322
If the magnification of a microscope eyepiece is X 10 and the magnification of the objective lens is X 40, what magnification results when a slide is viewed using both of these lenses?
400
323
State a site of auxin secretion.
Tip of shoot or buds or meristem / developing leaves or seeds or
other correct location
324
Name the group of substances in plants which control responses to external stimuli.
Plant growth regulators or auxins (or other named group)
325
What is the relationship between the rate of photosynthesis and either the light intensity or the carbon dioxide concentration.
As either light intensity or CO2 conc. increases, the rate of photosynthesis increases.
326
Name the chemical elements present in carbohydrates.
Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
327
What are secondary sexual characteristics?
The physical characteristics that distinguish male from female apart from the sex organs themselves [that develop during puberty].
328
What is meant by variation? State two causes of variation.
Difference between members of species or population
329
Suggest two reasons for conserving wild species.
endangered species are preserved for reproduction, the balance of nature is maintained
330
What name is given to the regions in plants in which growth regulators are produced?
Meristems
331
True or false. Chromosomes are made of DNA and lipid
False
332
Most Irish tomatoes are grown in greenhouses. State two ways a commercial producer could increase her/his crop yield of tomatoes.
Extra CO2 / increase temperature / growth promoters / increase light / add fertilizer
333
Where are sperm produced?
Seminiferous tubules in the  testes
334
What is the function of a semilunar valve?
They prevent the backflow (reflux) of blood into the heart
335
From what structures does the placenta develop?
uterine tissue and embryonic tissue
336
Give locations for two meristematic regions (meristems) in plants.
Root tip / shoot (or stem) tip / bud / embryo (or named part) / fruit / seed / between xylem and phloem (or vascular bundle)
337
What is the significance of inherited variation in the evolution of species?
Produces new genotypes or allows natural selection
338
Phototropism is the growth response of a plant to …
Light
339
The process of respiration occurs in two stages, Stage 1 and Stage 2, that take place in different parts of the cell. Say where in the cell Stage 1 occurs and where in the cell Stage 2 occurs.
Does the whole process release a large amount or a small amount of energy?
Stage 1. Cytoplasm
Stage 2. Mitochondria

Large
340
State one cause of infertility in the female and one cause of infertility in the male.
In Female: hormonal, blockage or failure to ovulate
In Male: low sperm count (or reason for) or hormonal
341
Name the apertures in stems that are equivalent to the stomata.
Lenticels
342
Most plant shoots are positively phototropic. Explain the underlined term.
Growth towards light
343
True or false. Organisms of the same species can usually produce fertile offspring.
True
344
Describe the ways in which the body responds when its internal temperature rises above the normal level.
Vasodilation (or explained) / (secretion of) sweat /
hairs lie flat or less air trapped
345
State two types of evidence used to support the theory of evolution.
Fossils or embryos or anatomy or genetics
346
Write a word equation to show what happens when yeast breaks down glucose in the absence of oxygen.
(Glucose →) Ethanol (allow alcohol) + CO2 + energy
347
What substance, other than ethanol, is produced during fermentation?
Carbon dioxide
348
How does the plant benefit from a positive phototrophic response?
Increased photosynthesis
349
Give an example of a condition, found in the human population that results from a mutation.
Down’s syndrome, cancer or stripe in eye colour
350
What is the function of the prostate gland?
Production of (seminal) fluid or nutrition (of sperm)
351
How may the action of an auxin be considered similar to the action of a hormone in the human body?
Made in one place / transported to other part / causes response /
slow acting /long lasting
352
State two functions of fats in the human body
Source of energy and thermal insulation
353
Give one industrial application of yeast breaking down glucose in the absence of oxygen.
e.g. Brewing or bread making
354
Explain the mechanism of response by a plant to a named external stimulus.
Named stimulus / diffusion of growth regulator / unequal distribution (of growth regulator) / one side grows faster / results in bending
355
What does an ecologist mean by the term conservation?
The wise management of the environment or organisms
356
Name two common blood-grouping systems
A, B, O
Rhesus
357
Explain the following terms that are used in genetics; dominance, genotype, phenotype.
dominance – one allele masking the expression of its partner
genotype – all the genes of an individual or genetic makeup or genome
phenotype – the expression of a genotype (the appearance or the characteristic(s) of an organism)
358
Name the gas used in photosynthesis.
Carbon dioxide
359
Name a carbohydrate that you would expect to find in the modified leaves of a bulb.
Starch
360
What is a hormone?
A chemical messenger or product of endocrine (or ductless) gland
361
When muscles break down glucose in the absence of oxygen, one main product is produced. Name this product.
Lactic acid
362
State a function of each of the following parts of a flower: petal; sepal; anther.
Petal - Attracts insects to effect pollination
Sepal – Protects the flower when it is a bud
Anther – (part of the stamen) produces and stores pollen until it is ripe
363
Give an outline of one conservation practice used in agriculture or fisheries or forestry.
Fisheries: Net size. 
Conservation benefit: Smaller fish allowed to mature and breed ensuring continuation of species and stock
364
What is the role of bile in fat digestion?
Emulsifies fats
365
Explain what is meant by pollination.
The transfer of pollen from the anther of the stamen of one flower, to the stigma of the carpel of another flower
366
State two ways in which hormones are similar to plant growth regulators.
Produced in one location / acts in different location / prolonged effect
367
From an ecosystem that you have investigated give an example of an abiotic factor that influences the distribution of a named plant in the ecosystem.
Abiotic factor: Light intensity
Plant: Moss
368
Which biological process is represented by the following word equation:
glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water + energy?
Aerobic respiration
369
What is meant by DNA profiling?
Producing a picture of pieces of DNA when an organism’s DNA is broken up using specific enzymes and then sorted by size on a gel. The result is a bit like a bar code.
370
Name a substance produced during aerobic respiration that is not produced during fermentation.
Water
371
What is meant by the term omnivore?
An animal that eats both animals and plants.
372
What is meant by feedback in relation to hormone action?
When the level of a hormone (in the blood) controls (the production) of another (or itself)
373
Name a part of a flower from which a fruit develops.
Ovary
374
True or false. Aerobic respiration is the release of energy in the absence of oxygen
False
375
What is meant by metabolism?
(The sum of all) the chemical reactions (in an organism) or catabolism + anabolism
376
What is meant by germination?
Is the beginning of the growth after a period of dormancy
377
Give an example of a carbohydrate that has a structural role. Where would you expect to find this carbohydrate in a living organism?
Cellulose
Cell wall
378
Give a brief account of the feedback mechanism for a named hormone.
Named hormone
inhibits (or causes production of) a named hormone
379
State one way in which a sperm differs from an ovum (egg).
It is motile or has a tail or correct comment on shape or size or very little cytoplasm or may contain ‘Y’ chromosome or has more mitochondria
380
In relation to ecological surveys, explain the meaning of the terms:
1. Qualitative, 2. Quantitative.
1. The types of organisms present
2. Numbers of individuals or number of species
381
State one conservation practice from agriculture or fisheries or forestry
Fisheries: Net size
Conservation benefit: Smaller fish allowed to mature and breed ensuring continuation of species and stock
382
Give two reasons why living things need energy.
e.g. For movement / for heat / for making products / for internal transport
383
What is metabolism?
All the chemical reactions taking place in living organisms
384
Describe one deficiency symptom of a named hormone.
One deficiency symptom of a named hormone
385
What stain did you use for viewing plant cells on the slide?
Iodine
386
Where in your dissection did you find the origin of the coronary artery?
aorta or near semi lunar valve
387
Describe briefly the hormonal and nervous responses that occur when internal body temperature drops.
receptor (or detection) / receptor in skin / receptor in medulla or brain / shiver / generates heat / hairs stand up or goose bumps / air trapped / vasoconstriction (or explained) / increased metabolic rate or increased respiration / any relevant comment on named hormone e.g. thyroxine increases metabolic rate or increases respiration
388
Suggest a role for NAD / NADP+ in cell activities.
Capturing or transferring electrons or protons or hydrogen (ions)
389
Protein synthesis involves both transcription and translation.
Where in a cell does transcription occur?
Nucleus
390
Distinguish between contest competition and scramble competition by writing a sentence about each.
Contest: (Results in) winner takes all (of a limited resource)
Scramble:(Results in) each gets some (of a limited resource)
391
Give an example of a human secondary sexual characteristic.
Male: broadening of the shoulders, growth and enlargement of penis, deepening of the voice, body and facial hair, etc.
Female: enlargement and growth of the breasts, growth of body hair under arms and pubic regions
392
State three functions of the placenta.
produces hormones (or named) / allows passage of food (or named) / and oxygen / antibodies / waste (or named) / acts as a barrier
393
What is meant by pollution?
The harmful addition to the environment (by humans) that leaves it less able to sustain life
394
What is meant by in vitro fertilisation?
What is done with the products of in vitro fertilisation?
Fusion of the male and female gamete outside the body.
Implanted in a womb or stored for future use or destroyed
395
In each of the following cases give one example of a plant that uses the stated method of seed dispersal: 1. Wind, 2. Animal.
Wind: dandelion, sycamore
Animal: blackberry, burdock
396
Name a factor, other than competition, that controls wild populations.
disease or parasitism or predation or hunting or reference to other named environmental condition
397
What type of RNA is involved in transcription?
Messenger /m (RNA)
398
What name is given to the first stage of respiration?
Glycolysis
399
What is the difference between self-pollination and cross-pollination?
Self: the transfer of pollen from the anther of the stamen of one flower to the stigma of the carpel of the same flower or another flower on the same plant.
Cross: the transfer of pollen from the anther of the stamen of one flower to the stigma of the carpel of another flower on a different plant of the same species.
400
True or false. RNA is not found in ribosomes
True
401
List three factors that are essential for germination.
Suitable temperature, Oxygen, Water
402
What deduction can be made from the following observation? In a particular area the population of a predator did not decline following a big reduction in the population of its main prey.
Different prey
403
What is connected to the ear by the Eustachian tube?
Throat
404
In what organelle does translation occur?
Ribosome
405
In the case of a named ecosystem give an example of a biotic factor that influences the distribution of a named animal.
Ecosystem: Woodland / Hedgerow
Biotic factor: Predator (fox)
Named Animal: Rabbit
406
The first stage ends with the formation of pyruvate (pyruvic acid). In anaerobic conditions, what is produced from this pyruvate: 1. In muscle cells, 2. In yeast cells?
1. Lactic acid
2. Ethanol + CO2
407
What is a hormone?
Chemical produced by an endocrine gland which travels in the bloodstream to target organ(s) to exert a specific response(s)
408
What deduction can be made from the following observation? Mortality levels resulting from infection by a particular virus tend to decline over the years.
(Host) immunity develops or comment on natural selection (or described) or most virulent strains die off or vaccination
409
State a role of beneficial bacteria in the alimentary canal.
Production of vitamins or inhibition of pathogens or (aids) digestion
410
What is meant by infertility?
State one cause of infertility in the human male.
The inability [to produce (sufficient) gametes and] to conceive or produce offspring.
Low sperm count or low sperm motility or hormonal
411
Name the small biomolecules that are joined together to make a protein.
Amino acids
412
What is meant by a pyramid of numbers?
The numbers of organisms at each trophic level
413
Name the gas produced during photosynthesis.
Oxygen
414
What deduction can be made from the following observation? Where some members of a species remain in the same general area throughout life and some members are migratory, mortality levels tend to be higher in the migratory part of the population.
Hazards encountered on migration (or particular example of a hazard)
415
If conditions are aerobic, pyruvate next passes to an organelle in which the second stage of respiration takes place. Name this organelle.
Mitochondrion
416
State a role of carbohydrates other than a structural one.
Release of energy
Energy store (starch, glycogen)
417
Which is present in the middle ear, gas or liquid?
Gas
418
What must happen to the newly formed protein before it can begin to work?
It must fold (into its functional shape)
419
State two good sources of protein in the human diet.
Lean meat, fish, eggs
420
What deduction can be made from the following observation? There is a greater variety of herbaceous (non woody) plants in areas where grazing species, such as rabbits, are more plentiful than in areas where grazing species are less plentiful.
(Grazing results in) reduced competition (or described)
421
Name three methods of contraception and, in each case, explain how the method prevents conception.
mechanical – prevents contact between sperm and egg
surgical – prevents contact between sperm and egg
chemical – prevents ovulation or hormone levels changed
natural - (safe period) – intercourse takes place avoiding ovulation
422
Give two uses of DNA profiling.
Paternity disputes, Forensic Science, Genetic Screening, Genetic Archaeology
423
Pyruvate is broken down to CO2 and a two-carbon compound. Name this two-carbon compound.
Acetyl Co-Enzyme A
424
Name a hormone associated with the maintenance of the placenta.
Progesterone
425
Give one function of proteins in living organisms.
e.g. enzymes or muscle component or skin component or hair component or structural or metabolic (allow ‘energy’), growth, repair
426
What deduction can be made from the following observation? In some species of migratory ducks in the northern hemisphere it is found that the wintering grounds of the males lie further south than those of the females.
Accept any biological knowledge-based statement that would provide a plausible rationale for a differential migratory pattern
427
Why is it important for plants to disperse their seeds?
To avoid overcrowding, minimise competition and encourage colonisation
428
Name the energy source for photosynthesis.
The sun
429
In the case of one hormone state: 1. The gland that produces it, 2. A function of this hormone, 3. A deficiency symptom of this hormone.
Hormone: Thyroxine  Gland: Thyroid
Function: controls rate of respiration
Deficiency: myxoedema (adult) cretinism (child)
430
State two features visible under a light microscope that indicate that cells are typical plant cells.
Cell wall & vacuole
431
The human circulatory system has two circuits. Give the name of each of these circuits.
Pulmonary & Systemic
432
In relation to a study of an ecosystem distinguish clearly between qualitative and quantitative surveys by writing a sentence about each.
Qualitative: What is present
Quantitative: How many present
433
When a pure-breeding black cat was mated with a pure-breeding white cat, all the kittens were black. Which fur colour, black or white, is recessive in these cats?
White
434
What is meant by a vascular tissue?
Refers to a group of cells with a similar function involved in the transport of substances, i.e. xylem and phloem in plants, and blood in animals.
435
True or false. Immobilised enzymes can act as catalysts
True
436
Name a chemical element found in proteins that is not found in carbohydrates.
Nitrogen
437
Suggest two possible fates for oxygen, following its production in a plant.
1. Given off to the atmosphere
2. Used in respiration
438
How were you able to identify the different plants in the ecosystem that you investigated?
Key(s) or illustrations
439
State a function of sieve tubes.
Conduct food throughout the plant
440
What are alleles?
Different forms of the same gene or B,b
441
Write a short note on each of the following: 1. Pulse, 2. Blood pressure.
1. Contraction of (wall of) artery or expansion of artery or due to pumping of heart (or of left ventricle) or rate at which heart beats
2. Force exerted by blood (or by heart)
442
State the function of the cochlea.
To convert sound to nerve impulses
443
Cellulose is an example of a structural …
Carbohydrate
444
Describe how you carried out a quantitative survey of the major plant species.
Quadrat / random / how random / count (or estimate) / many times / calculate (or record) OR Transect / stations / intervals / count (or estimate) / how (counted) / result described
445
Vitamins are either water-soluble or …-soluble
Fat
446
What term is used to describe the nutrition of plants?
Autotrophic (photosynthesis)
447
Give one example of an inherited human characteristic.
e.g. eye colour
448
Fats are composed of oxygen, hydrogen and …
Carbon
449
The human circulatory system has two circuits. Which of these circuits involves the pumping of blood by the left ventricle?
Systemic
450
Give two possible sources of error that may have arisen in the course of your ecological survey.
Misidentification / non-random (quadrat distribution) / not enough times / unsuitable quadrat size / miscount (or miscalculation)
451
When an iodine solution is added to a food sample and remains red-brown in colour … is absent.
Starch
452
What is meant by the dormancy of seeds?
A period of rest, inactivity or non-vegetative state before growth or germination.
453
What term is used by ecologists to describe the organisms that form the base of a pyramid of numbers?
Primary producers
454
Give one example of a non-inherited human characteristic.
e.g. ability to roller skate
455
When two monosaccharides unite they form a …
Disaccharide
456
How are the two strands of a DNA molecule joined together?
Hydrogen bonds
457
Removal from the body of the waste products of metabolism is called …
Excretion
458
Comment on the effect of each of the following on the circulatory system: 1. Diet, 2. Exercise.
Diet: Low fat – cholesterol
Exercise: Strengthen heart muscle – improve circulation
459
Explain each of the following terms in relation to the scientific method: hypothesis, control, data, replicate, theory.
Hypothesis: Educated guess based on observation
Control: Standard for comparison
Data: Measurements or observations or information gathered from an experiment
Replicate: Make a duplicate(s) of an experiment or procedure
Theory: A proven hypothesis
460
Proteins are digested to simpler substances. What are these simpler substances called?
Amino acids
461
Which structures in sperm and egg nuclei are responsible for biological inheritance?
Chromosomes or genes or DNA
462
What is ‘junk’ DNA?
Non-coding (or described)
463
Plants obtain carbon dioxide from the air. Name two processes that release this gas into the air.
Respiration, Combustion, Decomposition,
464
True or false. Urea is formed in the kidneys.
False
465
Where in a cell does photosynthesis take place?
Chloroplast
466
Give two ways, other than colour, in which a red blood cell differs in structure or composition from a typical body cell such as one in the cheek lining.
Contain haemoglobin / no nucleus (or other named organelle) / biconcave shape
467
State a function of mitosis in a single-celled organism.
Reproduction
468
Referring to the procedures that you used to isolate DNA from a plant tissue.
1.       What was the first procedure that you followed?
2.       What was the reason for that procedure?
1.        Chop
2.        To disrupt structure (or described) or to increase surface area
469
State the effect of any one named pollutant.
Named pollutant
Effect must match named pollutant
470
State the function of the semi-circular canals.
Detects movement of the head and controls the balance of the body
471
Name two ways in which cross-pollination happens.
Wind, Insect
472
State two ways in which villi are adapted for the absorption of soluble foods.
Large surface area / rich blood supply / microvilli / thin-walled / lacteal
473
State one way in which hormone action differs from nerve action.
Slower response, more widespread, usually slower response
474
Give a reason for the use of washing-up liquid when used to isolate DNA from a plant tissue.
To disrupt membranes
475
What is the role of the SA (sinoatrial) and AV (atrioventricular) nodes in the heart?
SA: controls the heartbeat. Sends out wave of impulses to muscles of both atria causing atria to contract
AV: picks up the wave of impulses that cause the atria to contract and transmits them to the ventricles, causing them to contract in turn
476
Outline one conservation measure carried out by one of the following industries: agriculture or forestry or fisheries.
Outline of one conservation measure
477
What is a bioreactor?
A container in which a living thing is used in the production of something useful
478
Yeasts are eukaryotic organisms. What does this mean?
Cells which have a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles
479
What is meant by genetic engineering?
Manipulation or alteration of genes
480
Give a reason for the use of salt (sodium chloride) when used to isolate DNA from a plant tissue.
To clump the DNA (or described) or to protect DNA from other positive ions
481
Suggest an advantage of dormancy of seeds to a plant.
Ensures springtime germination
482
Where in a leaf would you expect to find cells with most chlorophyll?
near upper surface or palisade layer
483
Name one problem associated with waste disposal.
One problem associated with waste disposal
484
Give the precise locations of both the SA and the AV nodes in the heart.
SA: (in the wall of) Right Atrium
AV: In (or near) septum or near tricuspid valve or between atrium and ventricle
485
Define the following terms as used in genetics; linkage, sex linkage.
Linkage: Genes located  on the same chromosome[ are said to be linked]
Sex linkage: Gene located on X- chromosome or on Y-chromosome
486
What is a protease?
An enzyme that digests protein
487
Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
Aerobic: The release of energy from carbohydrate using oxygen
Anaerobic: The release of energy from carbohydrate without using oxygen
488
State a function of companion cells.
Controls the activities of the phloem sieve tube
489
Where in the cell does the first stage of respiration occur?
Cytosol (= cytoplasm minus organelles)
490
State one role of microorganisms in waste management
To consume waste
491
State one function of protein in the human body.
structural (growth, repair, muscle, hair, nails)
metabolic (enzymes) or immunity (antibodies)
492
Why is a protease enzyme necessary when isolating DNA?
Because DNA is combined with protein
493
Name a disorder of the breathing system and say how it may be: 1. Caused, 2. Prevented, 3. Treated.
Name: Chronic Bronchitis
Caused: irritants such as cigarette smoke and air pollutants
Prevented: Don’t smoke
Treated: Bronchodilator
494
True or false. Motor neurons conduct impulses towards the central nervous system.
False
495
Give two sources of the carbon dioxide that is found in the atmosphere.
Respiration, Combustion, Decomposition
496
Describe the amnion and state its role.
Amnion: sac or membrane
Role: holds or produces fluid or protects embryo (or foetus)
497
Explain the terms pollution and conservation.
Pollution: Harmful addition to an ecosystem
Conservation: Management of ecosystems
498
The final stage of the isolation of DNA involves the use of freezer-cold ethanol.
1.       Describe how it is used.
2.       For what purpose is it used?
1.        Added down the side of the test tube or added slowly
2.        To bring the DNA out of solution
499
Give an account of a chemical test to demonstrate that alcohol (ethanol) has been produced. Include the initial colour and final colour of the test.
(Potassium) dichromate / add acid or warm / orange / to green OR
Iodoform test or potassium iodide / add sodium hypochlorite or warm / colourless / to yellow
500
What does an ecologist mean by competition?
When two or more organisms fight for a resource that is in short supply
501
Which gas, dissolved in the blood, can trigger deeper or faster breathing?
Carbon dioxide
502
Where is testosterone secreted in the body of the human male?
Testes
503
Explain each of the terms: alleles, recessive.
Alleles: An alternative form of a gene
Recessive: Allele whose expression is masked by dominant allele
504
State a use for Buffer solution in the biology laboratory.
To keep pH constant
505
If all the secondary consumers were removed from an ecosystem (e.g. by disease) suggest what would happen to the primary consumers?
(Their number would) increase
506
Where does the second stage of respiration take place?
Mitochondria
507
Name a process by which soluble foods are absorbed into the blood from the small intestine.
Diffusion (passive transport)
508
To which kingdom do yeasts belong?
Fungus
509
On a diagram of the female reproductive system indicate where the following occur: 1. Meiosis, 2. Fertilisation, 3. Implantation.
1. Meiosis: In the ovary
2. Fertilisation: ½ way along the Fallopian tube
3. Implantation: In the endometrium
510
State a use for the Biuret test in the biology laboratory.
To detect presence of protein
511
State a function of mitosis in a multicellular organism.
Growth
512
What is meant by a trophic level?
feeding (level)
513
Suggest why cross-pollination is preferable to self-pollination.
Cross pollination increases variation or reduces chance of genetic problems
514
Suggest one way in which the rate of photosynthesis of plants in a greenhouse could be increased.
Increased (artificial) lighting/ increased carbon dioxide / heating
515
True or false. Endocrine glands secrete hormones
True
516
In the course of your practical studies you used a solution of iodine in different investigations. State two different uses of the iodine solution.
Starch detection (or use of)
Examining cells (or described)
517
Explain each of the following terms in relation to DNA: 1. replication, 2. transcription.
1. The process of duplication of the DNA during mitosis and meiosis.
2. The process of producing mRNA using DNA as a template.
518
Give an account of the role of either oestrogen or progesterone in the menstrual cycle.
Oestrogen: repairs endometrium / inhibits FSH / stimulates LH
Progesterone: thickening (or maintenance of) endometrium / inhibits FSH / inhibits LH production
519
Name an ecosystem you have studied and construct a simple food chain from that ecosystem.
Name of ecosystem
Food chain: Must have at least three members and must match named ecosystem.
520
State one advantage of using an immobilised enzyme in a bioreactor.
(Enzyme) - can be recovered
521
Give an example of a surgical method of male contraception. Suggest an advantage and a disadvantage of the method that you have named.
Vasectomy:
Advantage: Permanently effective, No need for other contraception, Does not interfere with desire, spontaneity or enjoyment, Simple operation, Avoids side effects of hormonal contraception
Disadvantage: cannot be undone, Does not give protection against STDs or HIV, Medical complications
522
State two different uses of a water bath in biological investigations.
Keep temperature constant (or example) / to vary temperature (or example) / denaturing enzyme / heating
523
Explain how water enters the plant at the root hair.
Osmosis
524
How is xylem adapted for its role in water transport?
Tubular or continuous lumen / reinforced (lignified) walls / end to end / pits / lateral movement of water / wetable lining / narrow (bore)
525
What is an auxin?
a (growth) regulator in plants
526
Explain what is meant by an ecosystem.
Organisms / interacting / in their environment
527
Name a human female menstrual disorder. In the case of this disorder give: 1. A possible cause, 2. A method of treatment.
Fibroids Cause: associated with the levels of oestrogen
Treatment: Surgery
Endometriosis Cause: hormone imbalance or a weakness in the immune system
Treatment: Contraceptive pill, Surgery
528
In the course of your practical studies you found that heart rate and breathing rate increase with exercise. Explain why this is the case.
More energy (required) / more oxygen (required) / more CO2 (produced)               
529
The pancreas is both an exocrine gland and an endocrine gland. Explain the underlined terms.
Exocrine: A gland which has a duct [to deliver its secretions]
Endocrine: A ductless gland [which relies on the bloodstream to deliver its secretions]
530
Write a balanced equation to summarise aerobic respiration.
C6H12O6 + 6O2 à E + 6CO2 + 6H2O
531
Why does fermentation eventually cease?
Excess alcohol kills yeast.
Yeast run out of food
532
State two applications of genetic engineering, one involving a micro-organism and one involving a plant.
M/O: Production of human insulin
Plant: Production of Golden Rice – possible solution to Vitamin A deficiency
533
Explain what is meant by a habitat.
The place where an organism lives
534
In the course of your practical work you prepared a transverse section (T.S.) of a dicot stem for microscopic examination. How did you prepare the T.S.?
Cutting: Cut thin (section) or (cut) away (from self) or with scalpel (or blade or microtome)
Mounting:               placed onto slide with water or how cover slip applied
535
Comment briefly on the difficulty in classifying viruses as living organisms.
Non-cellular / one nucleic acid / can reproduce in host cell only or obligate parasite / do not possess organelles or named organelle
536
Give an account of the importance of the placenta during human development in the womb.
Transport in (or out) / example of barrier / produces progesterone
537
What is the final product of the first stage of respiration under aerobic conditions?
Pyruvic acid (pyruvate)
538
What type of food is mainly absorbed into the lacteal?
Fatty acids and glycerol
539
Give a brief account of the role of testosterone.
Development of secondary sexual characteristics or example named / development of sex organs /sperm production
540
In relation to the scientific method, explain each of the following:
1.       Experiment,
2.       Theory
1.        Test of hypothesis or test of prediction
2.         Hypothesis (or explained) supported (by experiment)
541
Explain what is meant by a niche.
The (functional) role (of an organism) or ‘occupation’ (of an organism)
542
Other than being prokaryotic, state two ways in which a typical bacterial cell differs from a typical human cell (e.g. cell from cheek lining).
Cell wall, size, capsule, flagellum, plasmid
543
State one way in which mitosis differs from meiosis.
No reduction in chromosomes/ no homologous pairing during process/
resulting nuclei identical/ two cells
544
From what tissues is the placenta formed?
Uterine and embryonic
545
True or false. Tendons join muscles to bones.
True
546
Scientists investigated the effect of a certain mineral on the growth of wheat. Suggest a reason why the seeds used were all taken from one parent plant.
To minimise (genetic) variation
547
What are antibiotics?
Substances produced by micro-organisms / inhibit (growth or reproduction) of bacteria or fungi
548
Name a powerful type of microscope that is used to show what cells are made of in much greater detail (cell ultrastructure).
Electron microscope
549
Describe three methods used by plants to protect themselves from adverse external environments.
Thorns/ modified leaves e.g. pine needles /stinging (cells)/deep roots / heat shock proteins/ phytoalexins e.g. production of antimicrobial chemicals / use of seeds / leaf fall / perennating organs or examples /dormancy / succulent tissues / toxins / other
550
Saprophytic and parasitic fungi are widespread in nature. Explain each of the underlined terms.
saprophytic – live on dead organisms (matter)
parasitic – living in or on another organism causing harm.
551
Explain the following terms that are used in ecology: Biosphere; Habitat; Consumer; Producer; Niche.
Biosphere: The part of the planet where life occurs
Habitat: The place where an organism lives
Consumer: An organism which feeds on another organism
ProducerAn organism which makes its own food
Niche: The functional role of an organism (in an ecosystem)
552
Scientists investigated the effect of a certain mineral on the growth of wheat. The compost in which the wheat plants were grown was sterilised at the start of the investigation.
1.       Suggest a way in which the scientists may have sterilised the compost.
State one reason why it was important to sterilise the compost.
1.        Heat (or method of heating) or named chemical or irradiation (or named)
2.        To kill organisms or to prevent contamination or to eliminate competition  or to eliminate disease or described
553
Outline how birth occurs.
Change in hormone levels (or correctly described) / contractions / waters break / cervix dilates / delivery / cord cut / afterbirth
554
What is meant by cross-pollination?
Transfer of pollen from one flower to another flower on a different plant of the same species
555
In biology, what is meant by the term organ?
A group of tissues (working together)
556
Strong forces of attraction exist between water molecules. Give an account of the importance of these forces in raising water to great height in trees.
(called) cohesion / water evaporates in leaf or transpiration / is replaced / upward pull or tension /continuous stream / ensures
movement / water column hard to break
557
Where are sperm produced?
Testis
558
Scientists investigated the effect of a certain mineral on the growth of wheat. Why did they divide the young wheat plants into two equal groups?
As control (or described)
559
By what process do minerals enter a plant?
Active transport
560
What is meant by genetic screening?
Testing (people) for the presence of a (specific) gene
561
What is meant by in-vitro fertilisation?
Sperm and egg fuse outside the body
562
Explain what is meant by the term pH.
(A measure of) how acidic or alkaline a solution is
563
Name two types of lymphocyte and state a role of each when viruses or other microorganisms enter the blood.
B-cells/ T-cells or two named T cells e.g. helper / killer / suppressor / memory
B-cells – produce antibodies/agglutination or lysis / memory
T-cells – recognise / destroy infected or damaged cells / memory / activation / suppress immune system
Helper T – stimulate B cells or stimulate killer T cells/ recognise antigens /
Killer T – Destroy infected or damaged cells /
Suppressor T – Switch off immune system or explained /
Memory T – memorise antigen
564
Scientists investigated the effect of a certain mineral on the growth of wheat. During the investigation they kept the two groups of plants under identical conditions. Why was this?
To have only one variable (or explained)
565
List three methods of contraception other than surgical. In your answer you may refer to either or both sexes.
Condon (male & female), Pill, Spermicide, Diaphragm, IUD, Implants, Rhythm, Coitus interuptus
566
How many cells are formed when a cell divides by mitosis?
Two
567
When lactic acid builds up in the blood, a person is said to be in oxygen debt. This debt must eventually be paid. Suggest how the debt is paid.
When exercise is complete the consumption of oxygen remains above normal until the debt has been repaid. This is why one continues to pant after exercise.
568
To which kingdom does Amoeba belong?
Protista / Protoctista
569
What is an enzyme?
A (biological) catalyst 
570
Scientists investigated the effect of a certain mineral on the growth of wheat. Name two conditions you think the scientists would have kept constant during the investigation.
Temperature / Light / pH / CO2 / humidity / other minerals / H2O
571
After implantation, the embryo first develops into a morula and then into a blastocyst. Explain the terms in italics.
Morula: (Solid) ball of cells
Blastocyst: Fluid-filled (or hollow) ball of cells
572
Describe how some bacteria respond in order to survive when environmental conditions become unfavourable.
Produce (endo)spores
573
When the normal control of mitosis in a cell is lost, cancer may result. Suggest two possible causes of cancer.
Carcinogen /mutation / mutagen / example 1 / example 2 / radiation or named / virus
574
Give two examples of uses of synthetic (man-made) auxins.
Rooting powder / tissue culturing / weed killer / ripening of fruit /
seedless fruits / other
575
True or false. The sino-atrial node (pacemaker) is located on the right side of the heart.
True
576
Scientists investigated the effect of a certain mineral on the growth of wheat. Why did they repeat the investigation several times before publishing their results in a scientific journal?
To ensure (statistical) reliability
577
What is meant by DNA profiling?
Analysing/examining a person’s DNA (to compare patterns with others) or getting or providing patterns or bands
578
Name two diseases of humans caused by viruses.
Cold / ‘flu / polio / rabies / mumps / rubella / measles / AIDS (HIV)
579
To which kingdom does Rhizopus belong?
Fungi
580
What is osmosis?
The movement of water molecules from a region of high (water) concentration to a region of low (water) concentration across a S.P.M  or The movement of water molecules along a concentration gradient across a S.P.M.
581
What is an enzyme?
Biological catalyst
582
Cellular respiration may occur in one stage or two stages. Give two differences, other than location, between Stage 1 and Stage 2.
Stage 1 does not require O2 or is anaerobic / produces a small amount of energy (or ATP)
583
State two ways in which sperm differ from ova (eggs).
Size comment / shape or structural comment / motile (only if ‘tail or ‘flagellum’’ not given)/ chromosomal difference / does not (usually) contribute mitochondrial DNA to zygote
584
Where in plant cells is DNA found?
Nucleus or chloroplasts or mitochondria
585
What is meant by the germination of a seed?
Is the beginning of the growth after a period of dormancy
586
Parents who are suspected of being carriers of disease-causing alleles may be advised to consider a genetic test. Suggest a role for such a test after in-vitro fertilisation.
Selection of embryo or any valid role
587
Which term describes the mode of nutrition of Rhizopus?
Saprophytic
588
Where in a cell does Stage 1 of respiration occur?
Cytoplasm or cytosol
589
What is an ecosystem?
A community of living organisms interacting with one another and their environment
590
Where in the cells of a leaf is chlorophyll found?
In the chloroplasts
591
The cells in the palisade layer contain many organelles that carry out photosynthesis. Suggest why the cells here contain more of these organelles than the cells in the spongy mesophyll.
Usually closer to the light
592
Describe a human activity that may result in pollution. Suggest a way in which this pollution could be prevented.
Activity: Littering
Prevention: Reuse, Recycle
593
True or false. A nucleus is absent from human red blood cells.
True
594
What term is used to describe respiration in which only Stage 1 occurs?
Anaerobic or fermentation
595
Name a product of the endocrine portion of the pancreas and state one of its functions.
Insulin or glucagon
Regulates blood sugar (level)
596
Give two characteristic features of eukaryotic cells.
What corresponding term is used to describe bacterial cells?
Nucleus, Membrane-bound organelles or other named organelle
Prokaryotic
597
Give one example of a beneficial fungus and one example of a harmful fungus.
Beneficial – yeast for brewing or baking / named edible fungus/ other
Harmful – ringworm / athlete’s foot / potato blight / thrush / dry rot / death cap / other
598
In the spongy mesophyll, gases can diffuse throughout the leaf.   Name one such gas.
Air or water (vapour) or O2 or CO2 or N2 or chemicals in or out
599
Suggest a possible effect on a human population that may result from an increased availability of contraception.
Decrease (no increase) in population / demographic imbalance/ improved social conditions /comment on STIs / health issues
600
Name a chemical end product of anaerobic respiration or fermentation.
Ethanol or lactic acid or CO2
601
Light energy trapped by chlorophyll is used to split water. List three products that result when water is split.
Hydrogen (proton) /oxygen/ electron or energy or ATP
602
What is meant when a bacterium is described as being pathogenic?
Disease-causing
603
Suggest one reason why living organisms need to respire.
To provide energy or named metabolic activity
604
What is meant by vegetative propagation?
Production of new plant from root or from stem or from leaf or plant asexual reproduction (or described)
605
State one function of the stoma.
To allow gas exchange or Transpiration or Temperature control
606
In Stage 2 of respiration electrons pass along an electron transport chain, releasing energy.
1.       In what molecule is this energy stored in the cell?
2.       To what are these electrons transferred at the end of the electron transport chain?
1.        ATP
2.        Oxygen or H+ (or protons)
607
The bronchioles end in small sacs. What is the name of these sacs?
Alveoli
608
Name the muscles that are used in breathing.
Intercostal muscles (between the ribs)
609
Name a gland that secretes seminal fluid.
Cowper’s gland / seminal vesicle / prostate gland
610
Name the four bases that are found in DNA.
Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine
611
What is evolution?
The way organisms change genetically from pre-existing forms to produce new species over long periods of time
612
What is meant by the term digestion?
The breakdown of food
613
Name the cells which are responsible for controlling the size of the stomata. 
Guard cells
614
Horticulturists use a number of methods to artificially propagate plants. Suggest one advantage of artificial propagation.
Fast or preserves desirable features or cheap or more reliable
615
Name two methods of cross-pollination.
Wind, Insect
616
What is meant by a triplet code?
three bases code for one amino acid
617
State a function for each of the following structures that are found in fungi; rhizoid, sporangium, gametangium, zygospore.
Rhizoid – anchors / digestion / absorption
Sporangium – produces spores / stores spores / asexual reproduction
Gametangium – produces gametes / sexual reproduction
Zygospore – survival / dispersal
618
Why is digestion necessary?
For solubility or for absorption or for transport
619
What is a selectively permeable (semi-permeable) membrane?
Allows some molecules through / Visking tubing / cell membrane
620
What is the function of the Eustachian tube?
To equalise pressure (on the eardrum) or air in or air out or Protection
621
To which kingdom do bacteria belong?
Monera (Prokaryotae)
622
Describe two methods used by horticulturists to artificially propagate plants.
Cuttings (or described) / layering (or described) / grafting (or described) / micro propagation (or described)
623
For what purpose do single-celled organisms use mitosis?
Reproduction
624
Distinguish between mechanical and chemical digestion by writing a sentence about each.
Mechanical: physical or grinding or cutting or churning or chewing or emulsifying
Chemical: (action of) enzyme or named enzyme or (action of) acid or named acid
625
Some of the carbohydrates produced in photosynthesis are used in respiration. What is respiration?
The controlled release of energy from food (carbohydrate) / oxidation of food
626
Name a disorder other than cancer for each of the following and indicate a possible cause and a means of treatment:
1. Musculoskeletal system,
2. Nervous system.
1.Name Arthritis / osteoporosis
Cause
Arthritis – injury / hormonal imbalance / genetic /immune response
Osteoporosis- hormonal imbalance / lack of exercise / genetic / dietary /menopause
Treatment
arthritis – anti-inflammatory drugs/ analgesics/ rest / exercise/ replacement of joint / steroids or named/ immuno-suppressants
osteoporosis: HRT / exercise / diet / dietary supplements or named
2. Name
Paralysis/Parkinson’s disease/
Cause
Injury / genetic / disease / lack of dopamine
Treatment
Physiotherapy / dopamine or drugs to promote neurotransmitter
production / stem cell / implant
627
What is connected to the middle ear by the Eustachian tube?
Throat or Pharynx
628
What is meant by pollution?
The harmful addition to the environment (by humans) that leaves it less able to sustain life
629
State a function of seminal fluid.
Allows sperm to swim / provides nutrients / lubricant / protects sperm
630
From which part of the alimentary canal does food arrive into the duodenum?
Stomach
631
Give two differences between vegetative propagation and propagation involving seeds.
No gametes (or one parent) / identical plants or example / rapid production / no outside agent
632
What do you understand by the term conservation?
The wise management of the environment or organisms
633
True or false. Light is essential for the germination of seeds.
False
634
What is the function of the cochlea?
Hearing
635
Carbon dioxide is essential for photosynthesis. Where does it enter the leaf?
stoma / guard cells
636
State one digestive function of the pancreas.
(Produces) enzymes or named enzyme or neutralises (chyme)
637
What is the function of the larynx?
Produce sounds
638
State one reason why water is needed for germination.
chemical (enzyme) reactions / dissolve stored food / swell testa / a condition of germination / hydrate cells / activate enzymes
639
Seeds and fruits need to be dispersed. Give:1. Two methods of dispersal, 2. Two advantages of dispersal to the plant.
1. Wind / animal / self (or mechanical) / water
2. Colonisation / reduces competition / elaboration of competition
640
The triplet code is transcribed into mRNA. What does this statement mean?
information (code) is copied to RNA molecule
641
The genetic makeup of an individual is called its ...
Genotype
642
What is an endotherm?
(An animal that) produces its (or own or body) heat or (body) temperature independent of  (temperature of) environment
643
Name one of the scientists who developed the Theory of Natural Selection.
Charles Darwin
Alfred Russell Wallace
644
To what structure does the ureter connect the kidney?
Bladder
645
What is aerobic respiration?
The release of energy from carbohydrate without using oxygen
646
Name an excretory substance present in urine.
urea /water /salt
647
Give the functions of the lens and the vitreous humour of the eye.
Lens: To focus (light) onto the retina
Vitreous humour: Gives shape (to eye)
648
What word is used to describe animals which are not endotherms?
Ectotherms
649
A sex cell is also known as a ...
Gamete
650
Valves are present in veins. What is their function?
Prevent backflow of blood
651
Name two vascular tissues in plants and give one way in which they differ.
xylem/phloem
Xylem - lignified/ transports water/ vessels/ tracheids / dead
Phloem – transports food/ sieve tubes/ companion cells / living
652
Breathing causes pressure changes in the thoracic cavity. Describe briefly how these pressure changes are brought about.
diaphragm contracts (lowers) / intercostal muscles contract /ribs move up and out / increased volume of thoracic cavity / pressure decreases / intercostals relax / air rushes in / diaphragm relaxes / volume decreases / pressure increases / air pushed out / inhale / exhale
653
State a function of ground tissue.
food storage / storage of waste / photosynthesis / strength / support
654
Suggest an advantage of being an endotherm.
(Temperature always suitable) for good enzyme activity or maintains constant body temperature or activity independent of environmental temperature
655
The wall of capillaries is only one cell thick. How is this related to their function?
substances can diffuse easily / in and out of blood / tissues / less fat content
656
A change in the structure of DNA is called a ...
Mutation
657
1.Suspensory ligaments, 2. Cones, 3. Optic nerve and 4.  Brain. Outline the roles in vision of the above structures.
1. Holds lens in place or (involved in) changing shape of lens
2. (Detects) colour
3. Brings impulses from retina or brings impulse to brain
4. Interprets information (received from retina)
658
What is meant by contraception?
Prevention of fertilisation (conception) or implantation or pregnancy
659
From your knowledge of photosynthesis suggest a way to increase the yield of plants such as lettuces in a greenhouse.
increase day length / artificial light/ increase carbon dioxide level /
increase in temperature level
660
Children typically have higher body temperatures than adults. Suggest a reason for this.
High metabolism or growing (or more cell division) or more active or more infections or teething
661
Suggest three reasons for conserving wild animals and plants.
food source / balance of nature / biodiversity / prevention of extinction / health of planet / aesthetic / recreational / O2 / CO2
662
True or false. Lenticels serve the same function as stomata.
True
663
A part of DNA with information to make one protein is called a ...
Gene
664
What is the menstrual cycle?
Monthly cycle in female / menstruation or lining of uterus / (endometrium) shed / blood discharged / F.S.H./ Graffian follicles with eggs / secrete oestrogen / endometrium thickens / L.H. / ovulation / corpus luteum / progesterone / (if no fertilisation then) lining breaks down
665
Explain how the iris works.
(muscular) contraction in response to light intensity or pupil size changes or allows more (or less) light in
666
A situation in which one organism lives on or in a second species, feeding on it and causing it harm is known as …
Parasitism
667
What is vegetative propagation?
Asexual reproduction (in plants) / cloning
668
The trachea contains rings of cartilage. Suggest a function of this cartilage.
Keeps the trachea (air way) open

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