Wednesday, 18 June 2014

Biology Revision Questions - with Answers (Part 2)

I had to split the answers into two parts because it would not upload so this is part 2 of the questions with the answers.




This is the list of answers to the short questions in the previous post.


Once again I did not write these questions or answers or design the layout so I cannot take credit for it but I have it so thought it would be useful for others too!





_____________________________________________________________________________
The following questions are taken from past Leaving Certificate Examination Papers (2004 – 2011). Questions on the same topic have been separated to provide random revision. If questions are repeated it only highlights their greater significance or importance as they have been asked more often over the years.

N.B. These questions do not cover the entire syllabus. Knowing the answers to these questions only is not a guarantee of an excellent result.





669
Name an excretory organ in the human body other than the kidney. Name a substance excreted by this organ.
Skin / lungs / liver
Water / carbon dioxide / urea / salt / bile / sweat
670
The allele expressed in the heterozygous condition are ...
Dominant
671
State a function of the rhizoids of Rhizopus.
It supports the fungus and is involved in absorption
672
Organisms capable of making their own food are known as …
Producers
673
How does vegetative propagation differ from reproduction by seed?
One parent / less variation in offspring / no pollination / no sexual reproduction
674
Suggest a reason why two eyes are better than one.
Increased visual field or to judge distance (depth) or 3D vision
675
How does a portal vein differ from other veins?
capillaries at both ends / joins two organs – liver and intestines
676
To which structures in the cell does mRNA carry the code?
Ribosome
677
The study of biological inheritance is known as ...
Genetics
678
All the members of a species living in an area are known as the …
Population
679
True or false. Parallel leaf veins are characteristic of monocotyledonous plants.
True
680
Name a breathing disorder. Give a possible cause of this disorder and suggest a means of prevention or treatment.
Asthma/ allergic response or genetics or smoking or narrowing of bronchioles or infection or anxiety / use of inhaler or avoidance of allergens / exercise .
Bronchitis/ infection or narrowing of bronchi/ antibiotics (for bacterial infection) / cancer of the lungs / MS effecting diaphragm
681
Anaerobic respiration by micro-organisms is called fermentation. Give one example of industrial fermentation, including the type of micro-organism and the substance produced.
any example of “industrial fermentation”
Bacteria: beer / wine / yoghurt / enzymes / drugs / hormones / antibiotics /methane (biogas) / etc.
Fungus / Yeast: carbon dioxide / wine / beer / single cell protein / antibiotics
682
Write notes on the role of lymphocytes.
Immune system (or described) / B lymphocytes / produce antibodies / T lymphocytes / any function of T lymphocyte
683
Filtration is an essential process in the formation of urine. In what part of the kidney does it take place?
cortex / nephron /glomerulus / Bowman’s capsule
684
Micro-organisms and other organisms that return nutrients to the environment by decay are known as …
Decomposers
685
Name a substance found in the vacuole of a plant cell.
Water or sugar or sap or salt(s) or named gases or protein
686
Name the following blood vessels;
1. The vessels that carry blood from the aorta to the kidneys.
2. The vessels that supply the heart’s muscle with blood.
1. Renal artery
2. Coronary artery
687
Give one example of vegetative propagation and state whether it involves a stem, a root, a leaf or a bud.
“Seed” potatoes – stem
Runners of strawberries etc. – stem
Tuber of Dahlia – root
Bulb of onion – stem/leaf/bud
New plants from leaf – leaf
Artificial examples
Cuttings/grafts/layers – stem, bud, stem
688
What term is used to describe the nutrition of Rhizopus?
Explain the importance of this type of nutrition in nature.
heterotrophic/ saprophytic /
decomposes / recycling
689
In the human diet zinc, iron and copper are examples of …
minerals or trace elements or inorganic nutrients
690
A situation in which two organisms of different species live together and at least one benefits is known as …
Symbiosis
691
Write notes on neurotransmitters.
Secreted by neuron (or vesicle) / presynaptic (neuron) / in response to impulse / chemical transmission / across synaptic cleft / cause impulse in next neuron / destroyed by enzymes / recycled or reabsorbed by pre-synaptic neuron
692
True or False. Glucose is a monosaccharide.
True
693
Why are valves not needed in arteries?
blood is under pressure / blood from heart / blood pumped
694
The walls of xylem vessels are reinforced with …
Lignin
695
Where is the epiglottis? What is its function?
At the top of windpipe / oesophagus
To prevent food entering trachea / wrong way / prevent choking
696
A struggle between organisms for a scarce resource is known as …
Competition
697
Where in a cell would you expect to find phospholipids?
Cell membrane
698
Vitamin … is an example of a water-soluble vitamin.
B or C
699
True or False. Nitrogen is a trace element.
False
700
Write notes on homeostasis.
Maintenance of / constant internal environment / example how / example why (Example = pH, solute concentrations or examples of such solutes, temperature, water)
701
Name a disorder associated with a deficiency of a named vitamin in the human diet.
Vitamin C – Scurvy
Vitamin D - Rickets
702
One organism killing and eating another organism is known as …
Predation
703
Artificial propagation is widely used in horticulture. Give two examples of artificial propagation.
cutting /grafting /layering /micro-propagation
704
What is Natural Selection?
organisms best suited to environment / have greater chance of breeding / and survive / ’survival of the fittest’
705
To what kingdom does Rhizopus belong?
Fungi
706
True or False. Eggs are a good source of fat in the diet.
True
707
What are the final products of the digestion of a protein?
Amino acids
708
What is the role of mitosis in single-celled organisms?
Reproduction
709
Write notes on the adaptations of wind-pollinated flowers.
Long stamens / long stigmas / feathery stigmas / large numbers of pollen grains / smooth pollen or light pollen / no showy colours or no scent or no nectar or small petals or no petals
710
True or false. Endosperm is a food reserve in some seeds.
True
711
What is the biosphere?
The part of the planet where life occurs
712
What is meant by a qualitative survey?
A survey which indicates if a species is present or not
713
True or False. All vitamins are fat soluble.
False
714
What medical term is used for the group of disorders in which certain cells lose normal control of mitosis?
Cancer
715
Name another organism that you have studied in your biology course that belongs to the same kingdom as Rhizopus.
Yeast
716
Suggest one advantage and one disadvantage of artificial propagation.
Advantage – simple/fast/ same as parent / avoids competition
Disadvantage – lack of variation / diseases inherited
717
Write notes on the economic and medical importance of viruses.
Economic importance: Crop damage / example of viral crop disease / animal disease / example of viral animal disease / human medical costs
Medical importance: Human diseases / examples of viral human diseases / used in medical research
718
Construct a grazing food chain containing at least four trophic levels.
Buds à Aphids à Ladybirds à thrushes à hawks
719
Name a carbohydrate-digesting enzyme in the human alimentary canal. Where in the alimentary canal does this enzyme act? State the enzyme’s product(s).
amylase – mouth / duodenum / small intestine – maltose
Maltase – small intestine – glucose
720
Suggest a possible cause of one of the group of cancers.
Named carcinogen
721
True or False. Lipids are made of amino acids.
False
722
Reabsorption of useful substances takes place in the kidney. In what part does this occur?
cortex / medulla / nephron / convoluted tubule / loop of Henle
723
What is the first stage process of respiration called?
Glycolysis
724
Which has the bigger lumen (cavity), an artery or a vein?
Vein
725
Name the chemical elements present in carbohydrates.
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
726
Name the stage of mitosis in which the chromosomes are located at the equator of the cell and before they begin to separate.
Metaphase
727
State the precise location of the liver in the human body.
On right hand side of body below the diaphragm and beside/over the stomach
728
True or False. Iodine turns starch to a blue-black colour.
True
729
Distinguish between tuber and bulb.
Tuber = A swollen end of an underground stem or root
Bulb = modified bud, swollen, underground, overlapping fleshy leaves and reduced stem
730
State a use of the following in the biology laboratory. Biuret test (copper sulphate and sodium hydroxide solutions).
Test for the presence of protein
731
State a function of each of the following components of a cell. (i) Ribosome, (ii) Cell membrane.
Ribosome: protein synthesis
Cell membrane: Retains cell contents. Controls entry and exit of substances.
732
To what are the chromosomes attached in the metaphase stage of mitosis?
Spindle
733
What is meant by the term ‘fauna’?
The animals in a locality or region
734
Which two elements always occur in a 2:1 ratio in carbohydrates?
Hydrogen:Oxygen
735
True or False. Cellulose is a protein.
False
736
Explain what is meant by pollution.
The harmful addition to the environment (by humans) that leaves it less able to sustain life
737
Distinguish between ureters and urethra.
ureter: duct that brings urine from the kidney to the bladder.
urethra: duct which delivers urine from the bladder to the outside.
738
Towards the end of mitosis, in what type of cell does a cell plate form?
Plant (cell) or named example
739
What is the primary role of chlorophyll in photosynthesis?
Traps or uses sunlight
740
Name the stain that you used when examining an animal cell under the microscope.
Iodine
741
What term best describes the shape of an enzyme?
Folded
742
True or False. Polysaccharide molecules contain many sugar units.
True
743
Name a structural carbohydrate.
Cellulose, Chitin
744
Give one way in which mitosis differs from meiosis.
Two (daughter) cells or identical (daughter) cells or (daughter cells) same chromosome number (as mother cell) or can occur in haploid cells
745
Explain the following terms as used in genetics: species, variation.
Species: Organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring
Variation: Difference between members of species or population
746
In ecological studies what is a key?
a guide to identification
747
Give an account of the effects of a named pollutant of domestic, agricultural or industrial origin. Describe one way in which it might be controlled.
Litter – reuse, recycle
748
State a role that the liver plays in the digestive process.
Produces bile – stored in gall bladder – secreted into pancreatic duct – emulsifies fats into fat droplets
749
Name one group of organisms responsible for decomposition.
e.g. bacteria or fungi or microorganisms or earthworms or insects e.g. bacteria or fungi or microorganisms or earthworms or insects
750
Which food type may be identified in the laboratory by the use of Sudan III or brown paper?
Fat (or oil or lipid)
751
Suggest a temperature at which human enzymes work best.
37°C
752
Give a function of carbohydrates other than a structural one.
Metabolic – source of energy (glucose), energy storage (starch, glycogen)
753
Name the scientists who are associated with the Theory of Natural Selection and refer to any one observation that prompted its development.
Darwin and Wallace
1.        Individual members of a species are different from one another.
2.        Offspring resemble their parents (variation is inheritable).
3.        More offspring are produced than can survive and reproduce.
4.        There is a struggle for existence and some individuals have variations that make them better suited to survival than others.
754
In the case of IAA state the following:
1. An investigation in which you used it,
2. The precise purpose for its use in the investigation that you have indicated.
1. investigate effect on plant growth
2. to determine its effect on growth
755
State a precise location in the human body where red blood cells are made.
Made in bone marrow of long bones, e.g. ribs, sternum.
756
Give one role for a named mineral in plants.
Role matching named mineral
757
What is semen?
Sperm (cells) and (seminal) fluid
758
Why are elements recycled in nature? 
Limited supply or words to that affect or reused
759
Write an equation to summarize photosynthesis.
                                         light energy
6CO2 + 6H2O à C6H12O6 + 6O2
                                          chlorophyll
760
Explain the terms: plasma; glomerular filtrate.
Plasma: clear liquid portion of the blood
Glomerular filtrate: liquid containing dissolved substances that pass from the glomerulus, in the nephron of the kidney, into Bowman’s capsule. Similar to blood plasma but without the proteins.
761
Name a chemical element always present in proteins but not in carbohydrates.
Nitrogen
762
What colour indicates a strong positive result of the Fehling’s or Benedict’s test for reducing sugar?
Orange or red
763
In the first stage of respiration there is a release of ATP as glucose is converted to another substance. Name this other substance.
Pyruvic acid
764
Give an account of three functions of the lymphatic system.
transport / defence / fluid collection / (transport) of fats / (transport) of hormones / (transport) of excretory matter / nodes filter / bacteria or pathogens / produce lymphocytes or antibodies / returns fluid to blood / absorbs fat / at lacteals
765
Name the part at which each of the following occurs:
1. Production of sperm cells.
2. Maturing of sperm cells.
3. Mixing of fluid with sperm cells.
4. Transport of semen.
1.        Testis
2.        Epididymis
3.        Sperm duct or prostate gland [allow seminal vesicles]
4.        Urethra or sperm duct
766
Distinguish between hypha and mycelium.
hypha: a filament
mycelium: a mass of hyphae
767
State two ways in which red blood cells differ from typical body cells e.g. from the cheek lining.
no nucleus / haemoglobin / shape comment / size comment / no mitochondria / carries oxygen or CO2
768
Give a role of lipids in cells.
Component of membranes (or of named membrane) or storage or energy or solvent or reference to steroid or (formation of ) phospholipid (or lipoprotein)
769
State a use of the following in the biology laboratory. Benedict’s (or Fehling’s) test.
To test for the presence of reducing sugar
770
What is meant by natural selection?
Survival of the fittest, e.g. best (adapted) survive
771
State a role for each of the following: sepal, anther, stigma, ovary.
sepal: protection / photosynthesis
anther: pollen - production or storage or release
stigma: receives pollen
ovary: produces or contains ovule or embryo sac or  female gametes/ becomes fruit / site of fertilisation
772
State two secondary sexual characteristics of the human male.
Broken voice (or enlarged larynx) / body hair / more muscle / more bone enlargement of testes / enlargement of penis
773
In respiration the acetyl group enters a cycle of reactions. What name is given to this cycle? Where in the cell does this cycle take place?
Kreb’s Cycle
Mitochondria
774
Give a role of water in the human body other than as a component of cytoplasm and body fluids.
Solvent (or example of solvent) or reaction medium or transport or reactant (or example of reaction) or reference to temperature maintenance or reference to temperature regulation or lubrication qualified  or protection qualified
775
The two male gametes in the pollen tube are derived from the generative nucleus. Do these gametes form as a result of mitosis or meiosis? Explain your answer.
mitosis
from haploid (generative nucleus) or chromosome  number retained or two (daughter cells) produced
776
What is a neuron?
A nerve cell
777
Why is the dark stage of photosynthesis given the alternative name of the light-independent stage?
Light is not necessary for this stage
778
Name a scientist who is associated with the Theory of Natural Selection.
Darwin or Wallace
779
What maintains the secondary sexual characteristics in the adult human male?
Testosterone
780
How many common amino acids are found in proteins?
20 (common amino acids)
781
Outline the problems associated with the disposal of waste. Suggest two ways of minimising waste.
problems – may be toxic / non-biodegradable / pollute groundwater / no land-fill available / costly / incineration (causes toxins) / valid example
minimising – reduce or example(s) or recycle or example(s) or re-use or example(s
782
Explain why red blood cells are normally absent from glomerular filtrate.
too big (to pass into Bowman’s capsule)
783
In the case of starch or skimmed milk agar plates state the following:
1. An investigation in which you used it,
2. The precise purpose for its use in the investigation that you have indicated.
1. digestive or other enzyme activity
2. supplies substrate or explained
784
Describe the difference in colour or depth of colour, if any, between the nucleus and cytoplasm when the stained cell was viewed under the microscope.
Cytoplasm paler or nucleus darker or nucleus blue
785
Distinguish between pollination and fertilization.
Pollination: Transfer (of pollen) from the anther to the stigma
Fertilisation: The fusion (union) of a male gamete and female gamete [or two haploid gametes] to form a diploid zygote.
786
State two harmful effects of viruses.
Two harmful effects (Any two viral diseases)
787
In relation to membranes in cells, explain what is meant by selective permeability
Allowing some substances to pass through
788
Variation is essential for natural selection. Mutation can give rise to variation. Give two causes of mutation.
Radiation, Chemicals, Chance
789
To what is pyruvic acid (pyruvate) converted under anaerobic conditions in: 1. Yeast? 2. A human muscle cell?
1. Ethanol + Carbon dioxide
2. Lactic acid
790
Distinguish between sensory, motor and interneurons (association neurons).
sensory: towards CNS or named part or from receptor or structural feature
motor: away from CNS or named part or to effector or structural feature
inter: links two neurons
791
Name a disorder of the musculoskeletal system. Give a possible cause of the disorder that you have named and suggest a treatment for it.
Disorder: osteoporosis or arthritis
Cause: genetic / hormonal / dietary / injury or wear and tear
Treatment: anti-inflamatory drugs / hormonal or named / dietary supplements / pain killers / muscle relaxants / physiotherapy / exercise
792
What is meant by the term immunity?
Defence against disease
793
Distinguish between photosynthetic and chemosynthetic bacteria. Give an example of each type.
Photosynthetic: using light to make food or obtain energy
Chemosynthetic: Make food or obtain energy using a chemical reaction
Example 1: role or implied role e.g. volcanic pools
Example 2: role or implied role e.g. in soil
794
Give two locations in a cell at which there is a selectively permeable membrane.
Chloroplast / mitochondrion / nucleus / vacuole [allow cell membrane]
795
Distinguish between thigmotropism and chemotropism.
thigmotropism: a growth response to touch
chemotropism: a growth response to substances or chemicals
796
Give one source of evidence for the occurrence of evolution.
Fossils / Anatomy / Embryos / Genetics
797
State a function of:
1. Schwann cells, 2. Myelin sheath.
Schwann cell: produces myelin (sheath)
Myelin sheath: insulation or protection or speeds impulse
798
The skin is an important part of our immune system. Outline two ways in which the skin provides immunity.
Barrier / sweat / scabs
799
The concentration of glucose is the same in plasma and glomerular filtrate. Why is this?
glucose) small or passes through
800
In the case of cold alcohol (ethanol) state the following:
1. An investigation in which you used it,
2. The precise purpose for its use in the investigation that you have indicated.
1. isolation of DNA
2. to separate DNA
801
What is diffusion? In the case of a named molecule, give a precise location at which it diffuses in the human body.
Movement of molecules (or substances) / from area of high concentration to area of low concentration (or along a concentration gradient)
Named molecule and location
802
State one method that is used to produce seedless fruits.
growth regulator / selective propagation
803
Under aerobic conditions pyruvic acid (pyruvate) is converted to an acetyl group and in the process a small molecule is released. Name this small molecule.
Carbon dioxide
804
To help the immune system, many people receive vaccinations during their lifetime. What is meant by the term vaccination?
‘Safe dose’ of a pathogen / causing antibody production or causing an immune response
805
True or False. The cells produced by mitosis are identical.
True
806
In relation to Parkinson’s disease or paralysis give:
1. A possible cause,
2. A method of treatment.
Cause: injury / genetic / disease / lack of dopamine
Treatment: physiotherapy / stem cell / dopamine or drugs qualified
807
State a function of dermal tissue.
Protection
808
Explain the biological basis for the use of high sugar or high salt concentrations in the preservation of food.
Bacteria / lose water / by osmosis / inactivity or death
809
Name a gas that is essential for the dark stage of photosynthesis.
Carbon dioxide
810
Antibiotics are usually not given to a person suffering from a viral infection. Suggest a reason for this.
Antibiotics have no effect on viruses
811
Briefly explain the role of neurotransmitter substances.
Carries impulse / across synaptic cleft / triggers impulse in next neuron
812
State one way in which a transverse section through a monocotyledonous stem differs from a dicotyledonous stem.
Vascular bundles scattered
813
True or False. Meiosis gives rise to variation.
True
814
Name two forms of heterotrophic nutrition found in bacteria.
Parasitic / saprophytic
815
What is an enzyme?
Biological (or protein) catalyst (or explained)
816
State two functions of a root.
Absorb water/ absorb minerals / anchorage / food store / reproduction (qualfied)
817
Why is glucose normally absent from urine?
Reabsorbed (a high threshold substance)
818
Distinguish between antigen and antibody.
Antigen: causes antibody production.
Antibody: a substance  produced by the lymphocytes in response to a specific invading antigen
819
What are antibiotics? For what purpose are they used?
Substances produced by micro-organisms / inhibit (growth or reproduction) of bacteria or fungi
820
Write notes on menstruation and a disorder of menstruation.
menstruation: shedding of endometrium / in absence of fertilisation or low level of progesterone
disorder: Endometriosis or fibroids / comment
821
True or False. Mitosis always produces four new cells.
False
822
From what part of a seed does the root develop?
Radicles (allow embryo)
823
What is meant by the specificity of an enzyme?
(Enzyme) acts on only a particular substrate
824
An organism which makes its own food is called a(n) …
Autotroph
825
Name two features of a plant cell which are not normally associated with an animal cell.
Cell wall, chloroplast, vacuole
826
In the case of alkaline pyrogallol or an anaerobic jar state:
1. An investigation in which you used it,
2. The precise purpose for its use in the investigation that you have indicated.
1. to investigate conditions for germination
2. to remove oxygen
827
Name the four elements that are always present in protein.
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
828
Give one example of a root modified for food storage.
Carrot / turnip / parsnip / root tuber / etc.
829
Two products of the light stage of photosynthesis are vital for the dark stage. Name each of them.
ATP, Hydrogen ions (Protons)
830
Explain how the Active Site Theory may be used to explain the specificity of enzymes.
Substrate / matching enzyme’s active site / active site changes shape / (formation of) enzyme-substrate complex / product(s) formed
831
True or False. Meiosis is never involved in gamete formation.
False
832
What is the point of entry of carbon dioxide to a leaf?
Stomata
833
Name the structures in plant cells in which photosynthesis takes place.
Chloroplasts
834
Plants can be monocotyledonous or dicotyledonous. Give any one difference between a monocotyledonous plant and a dicotyledonous plant.
One cotyledon vs two cotyledons
Parallel venation vs reticulate venation/
Flower parts in multiples of 3 vs flower parts in multiples of 4 /5.
Scattered vs ring of vascular bundles in stems
Fibrous roots vs tap roots
835
Explain what is meant by antibiotic resistance and suggest how it may develop.
resistance: bacteria or fungi not killed by or inhibited by or immune to (antibiotic)
how develops: natural selection has occurred or surviving strains multiply or misuse comment or plasmid transfer
836
Following a period of heavy exercise an athlete may produce only a small volume of concentrated urine. Explain this observation.
Sweating or water loss or dehydration / blood volume drops or concentration increases /detected by receptors / brain alerted / ADH secreted / from pituitary / (stimulates) reabsorption of water/ in distal tubule or collecting duct
837
Bioprocessing often involves the use of immobilised enzymes in a bioreactor.
1. What does the term immobilisation refer to when used about enzymes?
2. Explain the term bioreactor.
Immobilisation: attached to an inert substance (or example of inert substance) or fixed to each other
Bioreactor: vessel in which products are made by cells (or organisms)
838
Write notes on biological benefits of breastfeeding.
Antibodies or immunity / less danger of infection/ uterus contracts / may reduce risk of breast cancer / bonding / correct nutrients or easier to digest / suitable temperature / delayed ovulation
839
True or False. Single-celled organisms use mitosis for reproduction.
True
840
Give one example of a monocotyledonous plant and one example of a dicotyledonous plant.
Example Monocot / Example dicot
841
To what group of biomolecules do the main products of the dark stage belong?
Carbohydrates
842
An organism that eats another organism is called a …
Consumer or heterotroph
843
What is usually found in the cytoplasm of a plant cell?
Cytosol and Organelles
844
Give one example of the use of immobilised enzymes in bioreactors. In your answer name the enzyme, the substrate and the product.
Enzyme / Substrate (must match enzyme) / Product (must match enzyme or substrate)
845
Write notes on formation and functions of the placenta.
formation: (placenta) formed from embryonic and uterine tissues
functions: connected to embryo by umbilical cord / (placenta) produces hormones /example of transfer / example of a barrier
846
Give two ways by which pollen is transferred from one flower to another.
Wind / insects / birds
847
In addition to carbon dioxide another small molecule is needed for photosynthesis. Name this other molecule.
Water
848
Name the liquid part of blood.
Plasma
849
Water is essential for photosynthesis. Briefly outline how water from the soil reaches the leaf.
concentration gradient / root hair / osmosis / cell to cell / root pressure / xylem / cohesion or explained / adhesion or capillarity or explained / Dixon and Joly / transpiration or evaporation [accept water loss]  / tension
850
In which part of the human female reproductive system is the ovum (egg) formed?
Ovary
851
Suggest a biological explanation for the following: As long as a baby feeds regularly from its mother’s breast (or if a breast pump is regularly used) the milk will continue to flow.
(Sucking or pumping) stimulates (pituitary) / production of hormone (or correctly named hormone) / promotes milk flow
852
After fertilisation, what part of the flower becomes the fruit?
Ovary
853
Name a test or the solution(s) that is (are) used to detect protein in a food source.
Biuret test
Copper sulphate & Sodium hydroxide
854
What type of asexual reproduction is shown in yeast?
Budding
855
The place where an organism lives is called its …
Habitat
856
Give two components of plasma
Composed of 90% water and dissolved substances, e.g. products of digestion waste products, hormones, plasma proteins, antibodies, enzymes, salts.
857
Name the chamber of the heart that receives blood back from the lungs.
Left Auricle (atrium)
858
Many seedless fruits, e.g. grapes, are available in shops today. State one way of forming seedless fruits.
Genetic engineering / growth regulators / hormones / selective breeding
859
Suggest a biological explanation for the following: Doctors are reluctant to prescribe antibiotics to patients suffering from common cold-like symptoms.
Common cold is a viral disease / antibiotics do not affect viruses / (overuse of antibiotics) may lead to antibiotic resistance in bacteria (in patients)
860
Name a carbohydrate found in the cell wall of plant cells.
Cellulose
861
What is meant in ecology by a quantitative survey?
A survey which records or estimates the numbers of a species (in a particular ecosystem).
862
Give one location in a seed in which food is stored. Name a carbohydrate that you would expect to be present in this food store.
Cotyledon / Endosperm
Starch
863
What is a pyramid of numbers?
The numbers of organisms at each trophic level
864
Sometimes artificial methods are used to propagate (reproduce) plants. Name any two methods of artificially propagating plants.
Grafting/cutting/layering...
865
Give the term used for the growth response towards light.
Phototropism
866
Suggest a biological explanation for the following: A person who has suffered from constipation may be advised to increase the amount of wholegrain cereal in her/his diet.
Adds fibre / fibre absorbs water / peristalsis encouraged / faster digestive transit
867
What happens to water molecules when they reach the sites of photosynthesis?
photolysis or split
Protons or H+ / electrons / oxygen
868
What is meant by fertilization?
The fusion (union) of a male gamete and female gamete [or two haploid gametes] to form a diploid zygote.
869
Give two good sources of protein in the human diet.
Lean meat, fish, eggs
870
Explain the term excretion.
Getting rid of waste / made in the body  
871
Write notes on survival times for sperm and ova.
sperm: up to 7 days
ova: up to 2 days. sperm nourished in female tract or longer survival time means greater chance of fertilisation
872
What is a quadrat frame?
Square frame used for taking a random sample of plants in an area
873
Suggest a biological explanation for the following: After a long session of heavy exercise, an athlete’s urine is likely to be concentrated and low in volume.
Water lost by exhaling (or by sweating) / less water in blood / ADH secreted / causes collecting ducts (or distal tubes or kidney) / to reabsorb water 
874
Why is phototropism of benefit to plants?
For photosynthesis, maximises the amount of sunlight that falls on leaf
875
The primary source of energy in an ecosystem is the …
Sun
876
Name two substances excreted by the kidneys.
Urea/water/salt / urine
877
Waste management is becoming an increasingly difficult matter. Suggest two reasons for this.
Increasing population/ increasing consumption (prosperity) / too little recycling /opposition to incinerators/shortage of landfill sites/ illegal dumping/ NIMBY / cost
878
Give one cause of female infertility.
Genetic / hormonal / lack of ovulation / disease of endometrium / collapsed Fallopian tubes or abuse of alcohol or abuse of drugs / anorexia / menopause / contraception / hysterectomy / fibroids /obesity / STD / smoking /stress
879
Explain the following terms, which are used in genetics: allele, homozygous, genotype.
Allele:
Homozygous:
Genotype:
880
Suggest a biological explanation for the following: A person’s fingers may turn white when exposed to low temperature for a period of time.
Arterioles / constrict / less blood (in fingers) / heat loss minimised
881
Which type of division, mitosis or meiosis, is involved in budding?
Mitosis
882
Name the parts of the kidney in which each of the following takes place:
1.                   Filtration
2.                   Reabsorption
1. Cortex
2. Medulla  or Cortex
883
Name the group of substances that controls growth responses in plants.
(plant) growth regulators
884
Write the dental formula for an adult human.
i2/2, c1/1, p2/2, m3/3
885
The parts of the earth and atmosphere in which life is found is called the …
Biosphere
886
What is an amylase? Name a site of amylase action. What is the approximate pH value at this site?
Amylase: enzyme – converts starch to maltose
Site: Mouth or intestine
pH: 7.5
887
Name a substance transported to the liver by the blood in the hepatic portal vein.
Named food  or CO2
888
Name an excretory organ in the body other than the kidney.
Lungs/skin/liver
889
Name the blood vessels that bring blood back from the lungs.
Pulmonary veins
890
What is meant by absorption?
The passing of small molecules into the bloodstream from the digestive tract
891
Give one reason why the body needs water.
Component / Solvent / Medium / Reaction / Transport / (cell) shape / Temp. regulator / (allow reference to hydration)
892
Identify X and Y in the following equation which is a summary of aerobic respiration.
C6H12O6 + 6X  à 6Y + 6H20
X = O2
Y = CO2
893
What is a meristem?
A region of mitosis in a plant
894
Name any one hormone produced by the body. Give a deficiency symptom of the hormone named
Any human hormone
Deficiency symptom must match Hormone
895
Name the blood vessel that brings oxygenated blood to the liver.
Hepatic artery
896
What is the function of the petal? Give two ways in which it may be adapted for this function.
To attracts insects for pollination
Brightly coloured / nectary
897
What is genetic engineering?
Manipulation or alteration of genes
898
In which part of the human female reproductive system does fertilization occur?
Fallopian tubes (oviducts)
899
Give one way in which water is lost from the body.
Urination, sweating, exhaling
900
Give one example of the use of hormone supplements.
Any one use
901
The human being is an endotherm. What does this mean?
Animals who can maintain their own temperature from heat generated by its own internal metabolism
902
Where in the human body is the liver located in relation to the stomach?
Above or to the right or behind
903
Describe one method of waste management by reference to agriculture, fisheries or forestry.
Agriculture e.g. Slurry / dilute / on dry land / a fertilizer.
Fisheries e.g. Heads, neutralise waste / pulped and dried / fertiliser or pig feed.
Forestry e.g. Small branches / humus / Large branches / wood products.
904
Describe the role of the sweat glands in relation to body temperature.
Sweat / evaporates/ heat lost
905
If yeast cells are kept under anaerobic conditions, alcohol (ethanol) and another substance are produced. 1. What are anaerobic conditions?  2. Name the other substance produced.
1. Conditions where there is no oxygen present
2. Carbon dioxide
906
The central nervous system is made up of two main parts. Name each part.
Brain/spinal cord
907
Where would you find rods and cones?
Retina of eye
908
Name the test or name the chemical used to test a sports drink for the presence of glucose (reducing sugar).
Benedict’s reagent, Fehlings A & B, Clinistix
909
Where is bile stored after it has been made in the liver?
Gall bladder
910
Give two functions of a stem.
Support / conduction (xylem and phloem) / sometimes storage
911
State two functions of the human skeleton.
Support / movement / protection / blood formation
912
Name a disorder of the nervous system. Give one cause of the disorder and suggest a means of treating the disorder.
Named disorder/cause/treatment
913
Give one function of symbiotic bacteria in the human digestive system.
bacteria living in the colon produce vitamin B2 and vitamin K
914
Name the part of the central nervous system that runs through the vertebrae.
Spinal cord
915
In which part of the flower is pollen produced?
Anther
916
Give one role that the bile salts play in the digestive process.
Emulsify fats (or explained) or neutralise (or comment on pH)
917
Name the test or give the chemicals used to test a sports drink for the presence of protein.
Biuret test
Copper sulphate & sodium hydroxide
918
What does the term infertility mean?
The inability to produce  offspring / gametes
919
What is anaerobic respiration?
The release of energy from carbohydrate without using oxygen
920
Suggest some ways of minimizing waste.
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
921
What happens to the small arteries (arterioles) in the skin when the external temperature drops?
Constrict / reduce blood flow / less heat lost
922
Give one example of genetic engineering involving an animal and one example involving a plant.
M/O: Production of human insulin
Animal: Sheep producing blood clotting factors
Plant: Production of Golden Rice – possible solution to Vitamin A deficiency
923
Give two further functions of the liver, other than the manufacture of bile.
Storage of (fat-soluble) vitamins (or glycogen or named mineral) /  deamination / heat generation / detoxification / plasma protein production / cholesterol production
924
Where does  each of the following events take place:
1.                   Ovulation
2.                   Fertilisation
1. Ovary
2. In oviduct (not in uterus)
925
Where in the digestive system are the products of digestion absorbed? State one way in which this part of the system is adapted for absorption.
Small intestine
Folds / villi / length
926
Define the term osmosis
The movement of water molecules from a region of high (water) concentration to a region of low (water) concentration across a S.P.M  or The movement of water molecules along a concentration gradient across a S.P.M.
927
What is the main source of body heat in endotherms?
Respiration / metabolism
928
Give two ways in which pollen may be transported to another flower.
Wind / insect
929
The vertebrae form part of the axial skeleton. Name the vertebrae found in: 1. The neck, 2. The small of the back.
1. Cervical
2. Lumbar
930
In vitro fertilisation is a method used to treat infertility. What is meant by the term in vitro in relation to fertilisation?
In a glass vessel / Test tube (Allow ‘outside body’)
931
Where in a plant cell does photosynthesis take place?
Chloroplast
932
Where in the cell does the first stage of respiration take place?
Cytosol
933
Give one function of rods and one function of cones.
Rods: monochromatic vision (dim light)
Cones: colour vision
934
Give an example of osmosis in plants.
Water entering root hair cell; water moving from cell to cell in transpiration
935
Name the three bones that form the human arm.
Humerus, radius, ulna
936
Give one cause of infertility in women.
Inability to ovulate / blocked oviducts / menopause or age / weight / excessive exercise …
937
Write a short note (about five lines) on one of the following: arthritis or osteoporosis.
Cause / symptom / treatment / prevention
Arthritis: e.g. injury /disease / inflammation / affects joints / impairs movement / joint replacement / dietary supplement /etc. OR
Osteoporosis: e.g. loss of bone tissue / bones brittle / common in older women / HRT / calcium deficiency / pain / exercise / lack of exercise
938
Give the alternative name of the first stage of photosynthesis.
Light (stage)
939
In ecology what is meant by a trophic level?
Feeding level, i.e. the position of an organism in a food chain
940
State a benefit of dietary fibre.
Provides bulk / can prevent overeating / gives muscles something to push against / keeps gut contents moving / absorbs water / keeps faeces soft / easier to egest / prevents constipation.
941
A catabolic reaction in an animal. E.g. …
Respiration
942
As a result of fertility treatment, an embryo develops successfully from an in vitro fertilisation. What is the next step for the embryo?
Implantation / Frozen
943
What is meant by the term digestion?
The process of breaking down food into soluble molecules
944
Some cells in the human body undergo meiosis. Give one function of meiosis.
one (diploid) nucleus divides to form 4 different (haploid) (daughter) nuclei
945
During the first stage of photosynthesis energised electrons enter two pathways. Where do the energised electrons come from?
Chlorophyll
946
Where is FSH produced?
Pituitary
947
What forms in the carpel after pollination and fertilization?
Seed or zygote or embryo or food reserve
948
Name the liquid part of the blood.
Plasma
949
In genetics, what is meant by sex linkage?
Gene located on X- chromosome or on Y-chromosome
950
What is meant by an enzyme?
Biological catalyst
951
Why does digestion occur in seeds during germination?
Soluble / for transport / allow ”glucose for respiration‟
952
In the second stage of photosynthesis compounds of the general formula Cx(H2O)y are formed. What name is given to this group of compounds?
Carbohydrates
953
Does the first stage of respiration require oxygen?
No
954
Different lifestyle factors have an effect on the health of our circulatory system. Name any two of these factors.              
Any two factors
955
Give an example of a protein that has a structural role.
Myosin in muscle
Collagen in skin
956
Name a fungus, other than yeast, that you studied during your course.
Rhizopus
957
What is the function of the cornea?
Allows light to enter eye
958
An anabolic reaction in a plant. E.g. …
Photosynthesis
959
From which simple compound does the plant obtain the H used to make compounds of general formula Cx(H2O)y?
Water (or H2O)
960
Does the aorta carry blood towards or away from the heart?
Away from
961
Distinguish between biotic and abiotic factors.
Biotic: these are the living features of an ecosystem that affect the other members of the community
Abiotic: the non-living features of an ecosystem that affect the community
962
Name the blood vessel that joins the ileum to the liver.
Hepatic portal vein
963
What is a nutrient medium?
Material [or described] supplying food or material allowing growth
964
Give two meanings for the term sterile.
1. Free from all types of micro-organisms.
2. Incapable of producing fertile gametes
965
State a precise role for each of the following in photosynthesis: 1. Carbon dioxide, 2. Water.
1. supplies carbon for the formation of carbohydrate
2. supplies hydrogen or protons (H+) or electrons or photolysis or described [allow formation of carbohydrate or named once]
966
Why is the wall of the left ventricle thicker than the wall of the right ventricle?
Blood from left ventricle must be pumped further / greater pressure
967
Name the simple compound that supplies the necessary energy for the second stage reactions in photosynthesis.
Adenosine Triphosphate (or ATP)
968
The DNA molecule is composed of two strands held together by paired bases. 1. Which base can link only to thymine?
2. Which base can link only to cytosine?
1. Adenine
2. Guanine
969
An edaphic factor is an example of an abiotic factor. Explain the underlined term.
Factors relating to the soil [which affects the distribution of organisms in a (terrestrial) ecosystem]
970
Comment on the amount of energy released in the first stage of respiration.
Very little (4 ATP) released during Glycolysis when one molecule of glucose is converted into two molecules of pyruvate. 2 ATP used to start the process.
971
What type of lens is used to correct long sight?
Convex lens
972
Name the arteries that supply the heart wall with blood.
Coronary / Cardiac
973
Give one function of FSH.
Production or development of follicle (egg) or (stimulate) oestrogen production
974
What is meant by the dormancy of seeds?
Period of reduced metabolism (or period of reduced activity) or period of no growth.
975
“The same amount of DNA is present in nuclei of cells taken from the liver, heart, pancreas and muscle of a rat.” Use your knowledge of DNA and mitosis to explain this statement.
chromosome contains DNA
mitosis maintains same chromosome number or cells derived from mitotic division
976
For what is ATP an abbreviation?
Adenosine triphosphate
977
Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative surveys in an ecosystem.
Quantitative: A survey which records or estimates the numbers of a species (in a particular ecosystem).
Qualitative: A survey which indicates if a species is present or not
978
What is the role of valves in the heart?
To prevent backflow of blood
979
What name is given to the first stage of respiration?
Glycolysis
980
In which part of the digestive system is water absorbed?
Give another function of this part of the digestive system.
Colon or rectum or stomach or duodenum or ileum
Stores faeces or expels faeces or digestion or digestion or digestion (Allow Intestine)
981
Give one way in which the dormancy of seeds is of benefit to plants.
Survival or germination delayed until conditions suitable for growth or greater time for embryo development (or greater time for dispersal) or reduced competition
982
A fat-soluble vitamin. E.g. …
Vitamin A, D, E, K
983
What is meant by immobilisation?
An enzyme which is fixed to an inert material by chemical or physical means.
984
The lymphatic system is another series of vessels carrying fluid in the body. Give any two functions of the lymphatic system.
Returns fluid to blood / transport / lymphocytes(Immunity)
985
Explain what is meant by the term DNA profiling.
Producing a picture of pieces of DNA when an organism’s DNA is broken up using specific enzymes and then sorted by size on a gel. The result is a bit like a bar code.
986
Why is a quadrat unsuitable for studying most animal populations?
Most animals move too fast or are too big / use capture-recapture method / can be used if animal is slow moving
987
Explain the following terms that are used in ecology: niche, edaphic factor, symbiosis.
Niche: The functional role of an organism (in an ecosystem)
Edaphic factor: Factors relating to the soil [which affects the distribution of organisms in a (terrestrial) ecosystem]
Symbiosis: A relationship between two species living in close proximity involving benefit to one or both
988
Suggest one way in which knowledge of dormancy is useful to farmers and gardeners.
(Optimum) storage conditions or (optimum) sowing (or ploughing) time or (maximise) the growing season or seed treatment before sowing (or examples)
989
What is meant by nitrogen fixation?
The conversion of nitrogen into nitrates
990
In what structures in the lungs does gaseous exchange take place?
Alveoli or Air sacs
991
What is meant by nitrification?
The process of converting ammonia into nitrites and/or nitrites to nitrates
992
Where in the cell does the second stage of respiration take place?
Mitochondria
993
What is the role of ATP in cells?
stores or provides energy for cell activities
994
Suggest a plant that would not be suitable to survey using a quadrat.
Large plants, e.g. ash, oak, etc.
995
Water, oxygen and a suitable temperature are all required for the germination of seeds. In the case of each of these factors describe its effect on the process of germination.
Water: for enzyme action (or example of enzyme action) or as a solvent or transport of materials or bursting the testa [allow washing away inhibitors]
Suitable temp: required for (optimum or increased) enzyme activity
Oxygen: needed for (aerobic) respiration
996
Give one feature of the alveoli that allows efficient exchange of gases.
Thin walls / moist surfaces / surrounded by capillaries/ large surface area / expandable
997
Name the type of bonding which occurs between members of a base pair in DNA.
Hydrogen bonding
998
A reducing sugar. E.g. …
All monosaccharides and maltose
999
Name the nutrient medium that you used.
Nutrient agar
1000
Where in a cell does this first stage of respiration take place?
Cytosol
1001
What is the function of the nitrogen cycle?
To make (nitrogen) available or described / for use by organisms
1002
What is the function of the larynx?
To make sound
1003
Which part of the embryo in a germinating seed gives rise to each of the following parts of the seedling? 1. The root 2. The shoot.
1.        Radicle
2.        Plumule
1004
State one possible source of error in a survey of an ecosystem.
Lack of randomness / insufficient quadrats / species identification / carelessness / human error / unsuitable equipment
1005
Does the second stage of respiration require oxygen?
Yes if respiration is aerobic
No if respiration is anaerobic
1006
What term do ecologists use to describe an animal which kills and eats other animals?
Predator
1007
Name a substance that is used to immobilise enzymes.
(calcium or sodium) alginate or other correct
1008
Outline the steps involved in inhalation.
Impulse from brain / (intercostal) muscles contract / diaphragm contracts / thoracic cavity increases or rib cage up and out or diaphragm flattens / pressure drops  / air in 
1009
What are the stages involved in DNA profiling.
DNA extracted or explained / DNA cut into fragments / using enzymes / fragments separated / on basis of size / pattern analysed
1010
Describe the development of pollen grains from microspore mother cells.
Meiosis / 4 (or tetrad ) / haploid / micospores / (divides by) mitosis / tube and generative nucleus / pollen grain matures (or wall forms)
1011
Give four factors that influence the size of the human population.
famine or food availability / birth control / war / disease / birth rate / death rate or longevity / degree of medical care / natural disaster or example
1012
What is meant by the term species?
Organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring
1013
A polysaccharide. E.g. …
Starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin
1014
What is meant by the term photosynthesis?
The method by which plants make their own food
1015
To what substance is glucose normally converted in the first stage of respiration?  Is oxygen required for this conversion?
Pyruvate
No oxygen required
1016
Name the blood vessel that returns blood to the heart from the lungs.
Pulmonary vein
1017
What is meant by the term fertilisation?
Fusion of gametes or formation of zygote
1018
State the function of the following: epiglottis, larynx.
epiglottis: to close off trachea or described
larynx: to make sound
1019
From what structure in the carpel does the seed develop?
Ovule
1020
A gas from the air is needed for photosynthesis. Name this gas.
CO2 / Water Vapour
1021
Explain the following terms as used in genetics: 1. heterozygous, 2. incomplete dominance, 3. phenotype.
Heterozygous:
Incomplete dominance:
Phenotype:
1022
Name a breathing disorder. Name: ___________________ and state: 1. A cause, 2. A means of prevention, 3. A treatment
Asthma
Cause: narrowing of the bronchioles and mucus secretion
Prevention: avoid of pollen, house mites, dog and cat dander or vigorous exercise
Treatment: steroid tablets or inhalers
Bronchitis
Cause: bacteria, viruses and irritants such as cigarette smoke and air pollutants
Prevention: avoid smoky atmosphere
Treatment: antibiotics if bacterial
1023
Comment on the amount of energy released in the second stage of respiration.
Very large amount / much greater than in the first stage
1024
Give a brief account of the process of fertilisation in flowering plants.
Generative nucleus / mitosis / two  male gametes (or nuclei) / one fuses with egg / to form zygote / other (male gamete or nucleus) fuses with (two) polar nuclei / to form
1025
Describe briefly the role of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles in inhalation. In your answer refer to volume and thoracic air pressure.
diaphragm contracts / lowers / intercostal muscles contract / rib cage up/ volume of chest (cavity) increased / decreased pressure / air in / to equalise pressure
1026
Name the part of a plant cell in which photosynthesis takes place.
Chloroplasts
1027
Give two applications of DNA profiling.
Paternity disputes, Forensic Science, Genetic Screening, Genetic Archaeology
1028
Give two advantages of using immobilised enzymes.
enzyme can be reused / can be recovered / pure product / comment on cost or efficiency or stability or longer lasting
1029
What is meant by DNA profiling?
Producing a picture of pieces of DNA when an organism’s DNA is broken up using specific enzymes and then sorted by size on a gel. The result is a bit like a bar code.
1030
Name a compound to which pyruvic acid (pyruvate) may be converted, in the absence of oxygen.
In animals: lactic acid
In plants (yeast): ethanol and carbon dioxide
1031
Give a role for each of the following parts of a flower: sepals, anther and stigma.
Sepals: protect flower (or bud) or photosynthesis or attract insects
Anthers: produce pollen
Stigma: traps (or catches) pollen [allow where pollen lands if qualified]
1032
Write a balanced equation for photosynthesis.
                                     light energy
6CO2 + 6H2O à C6H12O6 + 6O2
                                      chlorophyll
1033
Name the process involved in the passage of gas between the alveolus and the blood.
Diffusion
1034
What term is used to describe the animal that is killed and eaten?
Prey
1035
State two ways in which the energy that is released during respiration is used in the human body.
Movement / metabolism / protein synthesis / assimilation
1036
A trace element in the human diet. E.g. …
Iron, copper, zinc
1037
In DNA profiling, what are used to cut DNA strands into fragments?
Restriction enzymes
1038
Plants contain the green pigment chlorophyll. What is the role of chlorophyll in photosynthesis?
To absorb light / to convert light to chemical energy
1039
Is the following statement true or false? Give a reason for your answer. Food chains are usually short.
True  / Energy lost at (or between) levels or described
1040
Give three ways in which an alveolus is adapted for efficient gas exchange.
capillary network / moist surface / thin walled / elastic wall
1041
Name the main gas transported in the pulmonary vein. How is this gas transported?
Oxygen
Transported as oxyhaemoglobin
1042
What is genetic screening?
Testing (people) for the presence of a (specific) gene or
To establish presence or absence of gene(s)
1043
State two locations in the seed where food may be stored.
Cotyledon / endosperm
1044
What is an enzyme?
A biological (or organic or protein) / catalyst
1045
Give one application of a named immobilised enzyme. In your answer, refer to substrate, enzyme and product.
Application: Making lactose-free milk
Enzyme: Immobilised lactase
Substrate: Heat-treated skimmed milk
Product: lactose-free milk
1046
Is the following statement true or false? Give a reason for your answer. The herbivores in an ecosystem normally live long lives.
False / Usually eaten by 2nd level consumers (or carnivores)
1047
Give two applications (uses) of DNA profiling.
Paternity disputes, Forensic Science, Genetic Screening, Genetic Archaeology
1048
Comment on the difficulty of defining viruses as living organisms.
non-cellular / one nucleic acid / can reproduce in host cell only or obligate parasite / do not possess organelles or named organelle
1049
What is meant by the term immunity?
the ability of the body to resist infection
1050
Name any one enzyme, and its substrate, and its product.
Enzyme: any enzyme
Substrate: must match enzyme
Product: must match substrate or enzyme
1051
Where does meiosis occur in the human male?
Testis
1052
If the population of prey declines suggest two possible consequences for the predators.
Starvation or death / migration / decline in population / increased competition / change food source
1053
Is the following statement true or false? Give a reason for your answer. The only remaining natural ecosystems in Ireland, for example mountain land above the heather line and salt marsh, are ones for which mankind has no use.
True / Use causes change or no abuse or no economic value or
False / Valid reason
1054
Other than the secretion of hormones, how does an endocrine gland differ from an exocrine gland?
ductless or secretes into blood stream
1055
Name the plant from which you isolated DNA in your practical studies.
Kiwi
1056
The rate of activity of enzymes can be affected by various factors. Name any two factors that can affect enzyme activity.
Temperature / pH
1057
What is homeostasis? Note one reason why it is important in the human body.
Maintaining a constant internal environment
Reason: allows normal metabolic activities or keeps temperature suitable for enzyme reactions
1058
The embryo plant within the seed has a number of parts. List two of these parts, apart from food stores, and give a role for each of them.
radicle / plumule
develops root / develops shoot
1059
What is an antibiotic?
Substances produced by bacteria or fungi [accept micro-organisms] to treat infections [kill other bacteria or fungi]
1060
Is the following statement true or false? Give a reason for your answer. HIV / AIDS has orphaned many children in sub-Saharan Africa.
True / Premature death of parents or poor living conditions or poor health care (or example) or poor education or an example of a cultural reason
1061
What is meant by an ectotherm?
Animals whose body temperature varies with the environmental temperature
1062
Enzymes are sometimes immobilised in industrial processes. What is meant by the term immobilised in relation to enzymes?
Attached to a (inert)substance/ trapped / in beads
1063
A carbohydrate is composed of carbon, hydrogen and …
Oxygen
1064
For what precise purpose did you use freezer-cold ethanol (alcohol) in your isolation of DNA?
To separate the DNA
1065
State two ways in which hormone action differs from nerve action.
chemical transmission / slower action / longer lasting effect / many
target organs
1066
Where is sperm stored in the human male?
Epididymis
1067
To which kingdom do bacteria belong?
Monera or Prokaryotae
1068
Give one advantage of using immobilised enzymes.
Can be reused / pure product / cheaper
1069
What are the two main biochemical components of a virus particle?
Protein coat / nucleic acid
1070
An example of a water-soluble vitamin is …
Vitamin B, C
1071
A chemical that is used to show the presence of starch is …
Iodine
1072
Decomposition is essential for the addition of nutrients to the soil. Explain the underlined term.
The decaying of a dead organism
1073
Following dispersal, the seed undergoes a period of dormancy. What is dormancy? Suggest two advantages of dormancy.
Dormancy: a period of rest before growth
Advantages: Ensures springtime germination / maximises the growing season for the new seedling / in desert plants – ensures water for further growth
1074
What is the main source of energy in an ecosystem?
The Sun
1075
Where are primary producers found in a pyramid of numbers?
Base or bottom
1076
Outline briefly the role of B lymphocytes in the human immune system.
recognition / produce antibodies / specific to antigens or in response to antigens
1077
In the case of a named hormone give: 1. a deficiency symptom, 2. a corrective measure.
Hormone: Thyroxine
1. Child – slow growth, mental retardation
2. thyroxine tablets
1078
State two functions of testosterone.
Stimulates male primary & secondary sexual characteristics / sperm formation
1079
The liquid in which chemical reactions take place in the cell is …
Cytosol
1080
Explain the following terms used in ecology:
1.            Biosphere
2.            Habitat.
1.        Biosphere – Everywhere life is possible
2.        Habitat – A place where organism(s) live
1081
Name two groups of micro-organisms in the soil which are responsible for decomposition.
Bacteria / fungi
1082
Using named examples, construct a simple inverted pyramid of numbers.
Pyramid showing any inversion (at least two levels). Any two named organisms in inverted relationship
1083
Antibiotics should not be prescribed for a person suffering from a viral infection. Suggest a reason for this.
Antibiotics have no effect on viruses
1084
Fats are made from fatty acids and …
Glycerol
1085
What is meant by each of the following in ecology: predator; habitat; niche; biosphere; ecosystem?
Predator: An animal (or organism ) which kills and eats an animal (or organism or prey)
Habitat: The place where an organism lives
Niche: The functional role of an organism (in an ecosystem)
Biosphere: The part of the planet where life occurs
Ecosystem: A community of living organisms interacting with one another and their environment
1086
What is meant by a quantitative survey of organisms in a habitat?
A survey in which the number of a particular species/organism is counted
1087
Distinguish between active and passive immunity.
Active: When the body produces its own antibodies
Passive: The body receives ready-made antibodies to combat infection giving short lived protection
1088
True or false. If the eyepiece lens of a microscope is marked X10 and the objective lens is marked X4, the total magnification is X14.
False
1089
Give two examples of the use of hormone supplements.
e.g. 1.  Treatment of diabetes   2. Contraception
1090
What is the function of flagella on bacteria?
For movement or propulsion
1091
Genetics is the study of …
The study of the structure and function of genes and their transmission from parents to offspring
1092
Name two pieces of apparatus used to collect animals from an ecosystem.
Pooter / Beating tray / Pitfall trap / Net…         
1093
In a woman the sex chromosomes are XX; in a man they are …
XY
1094
Give a cause of male infertility and suggest a corrective measure.
Cause: low sperm count / low sperm mobility / endocrine gland failure
Correction: IVF
1095
If the diploid number in a cell is 46, the haploid number is …
23
1096
1.       Name a hormone-producing gland in the human body.
2.       Where in the body is the gland located?
3.       Name a hormone that this gland secretes.
4.       State a role of this hormone.
5.       Describe what happens if the body experiences a deficiency of this hormone.
1.        Name of a hormone-producing gland
2.        Location of named gland
3.        Hormone secreted by named gland
4.        Role of hormone
5.        Description of deficiency symptom [Accept named condition]
1097
In order to make proteins, DNA is first transcribed as messenger ...
mRNA
1098
What is meant by the term predator?
Organism that kills & eats others (allow kills its prey)
1099
Name any two of the main bacterial types (shapes).
Cocci / rods / spirals
1100
A change in the genetic material of an organism is called a …
Mutation
1101
Name two diseases caused by viruses.
Measles / mumps / rubella / AIDS
1102
True or false. Plant cells have chloroplasts; animal cells do not have chloroplasts.
True
1103
What term is used to describe the glands that secrete hormones in the human body?
Endocrine (or ductless)
1104
What is meant by the term conservation?
Management of an ecosystem (not natural resource & not protection)
1105
Give one main function of the leaf.
To make food
1106
“Vaccination gives rise to active immunity”. Explain this statement.
vaccination introduces antigen / causes antibody production to gain immunity to that infection
1107
By which method do bacterial cells reproduce?
Binary fission
1108
In certain situations a person is given a specific antibody rather than being vaccinated.
1. Is this an example of active or passive immunity?
2. Under what circumstances might an antibody, rather than a vaccination, be given?
3. Comment on the duration of immunity that follows the administration of an antibody.
1. passive
2. infection may already have occurred or possibility of dangerous
infection or no vaccine available or vaccine too expensive
3. short term
1109
Is an enzyme a lipid, a protein or a carbohydrate?
Protein
1110
Explain the following terms that are used in genetics: Allele.
Allele – alternative form of a gene
1111
What is a reflex action?
automatic / response to a stimulus / involuntary (or not controlled by brain)
1112
What is the role of the fruit?
reproduction or seed dispersal (a source of food for animals)
1113
Give a function of ligaments.
Joins bone to bone
1114
Name the tube-like tissue found in the stem in which water moves through the plant.
Xylem
1115
Some bacteria are anaerobic. What does this mean?
They live (respire) without or in the absence of oxygen
1116
Explain the following terms that are used in genetics: Heterozygous.
Heterozygous–two alleles / Tt (2 genes not acceptable)
1117
True or false. Humans receive oxygen from the air they inhale.
True
1118
Give one example of a reflex action.
e.g. coughing, blinking, sneezing etc.
1119
Where in a cell are enzymes produced?
Ribosomes
1120
Name the element, other than carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, which is always found in protein.
Nitrogen
1121
Give an example of a beneficial application of a virus.
bacteriophage or used in genetic engineering or vaccine production or
vector (in disease treatment)
1122
Explain the following terms that are used in genetics: Phenotype.
Phenotype – genotype expressed / genotype +environment
1123
What is meant in ecology by a quantitative survey?
A survey which records or estimates the numbers of a species (in a particular ecosystem).
1124
What are pathogenic bacteria?
Disease causing organisms/bacteria
1125
Suggest an advantage of reflex actions.
Protection or fast (response)
1126
Give one main function of the root.
Anchorage / absorption / storage
1127
What is the principal source of energy for the Earth’s ecosystems?
The sun
1128
In humans, brown eye (B) is dominant to blue eye (b). Two parents, one heterozygous for eye colour and the other with blue eyes, start a family.
(i)            What is the genotype of the blue-eyed parent?
(ii)           What are the possible gametes that each parent can produce?
(i)       (bb)
(ii)     One Parent  – (B) / (b)
Other Parent - (b)
1129
State one reason that your body needs protein.
Structural: growth, repair, muscle, hair, nails
Metabolic: enzymes, immunity (antibodies)
1130
Give a function of synovial fluid.
lubricate a joint / reduce friction
1131
Name a producer.
Any named green plant
1132
Name a disorder of the human nervous system.
Paralysis or Parkinson’s
1133
Give two example of the economic importance of bacteria.
Any two examples
1134
Explain, in terms of what happens to body cells, what is meant by the term cancer.
Control over cell division is lost
1135
What is meant by an abiotic factor?
A non- living feature of an ecosystem that affects the community
1136
What is a tissue?
Group of similar cells
1137
Explain briefly what is meant by a gene.
A unit of DNA which codes for the production of a specific protein
1138
True or false. Cell membranes let only some molecules pass through.
True
1139
In the case of a disorder of the human nervous system state:
1. A possible cause.
2. A means of prevention or a treatment.
Paralysis or Parkinson’s
1.        Relevant cause
2.        Relevant means of prevention or treatment
1140
Give two possible causes of cancer.
Any two  causes e.g. Radiation / Smoking …
1141
State one way in which a named organism is adapted to the ecosystem.
Greenfly – colour (camouflage)
1142
Explain why it is difficult to classify viruses as living organisms.
non-cellular / one nucleic acid / can reproduce in host cell only or obligate parasite / do not possess organelles or named organelle
1143
The allele for brown eye (B) is dominant to the allele for blue eye (b).
Explain each of the underlined terms.
Allele: An alternative form of a gene
Dominant: One allele masks the expression of the other
1144
Name two foods in which you found protein.
Lean meat, fish, eggs
1145
What is a quadrat frame?
a square frame with internal dimensions of one metre or half a metre. May or may not be sub-divided with wires or string. Used for taking a random sample of plants in an area
1146
Some people choose to be screened to determine their risk of getting a particular type of cancer. What is meant by genetic screening?
Checking / for presence of specific gene
1147
Distinguish between the terms haploid and diploid.
Haploid: (A nucleus having) one set of chromosomes (or one copy of each chromosome)
Diploid: (A nucleus having) Two sets of chromosomes (or  two copies of each chromosome)
1148
Which stage of respiration releases more energy?
The second stage / in the mitochondria
1149
Explain briefly what is meant by respiration.
The controlled release of energy from food within a cell. A 24 hour process.
1150
Give the two main chemical components of a virus.
Protein coat / nucleic acid
1151
Name two tissues found in animals.
Dermal, vascular, muscular, nervous,
1152
Blood samples taken from a crime scene were put through a process called DNA profiling. During the process cells were broken down to release the DNA, which was then cut into fragments. The fragments were then separated.
1.       What was used to cut the DNA?
2.       On what basis were the DNA fragments separated?
3.       Give an application of DNA profiling other than solving crime.
1.        Enzyme
2.        Size
3.        Paternity or maternity / taxonomy / evolution
1153
Name the process that converts the principal source of energy into chemical energy in plants.
Photosynthesis
1154
Distinguish between the terms homozygous and heterozygous.
Homozygous: alleles the same
Heterozygous: alleles different
1155
What reagent or chemicals did you use to test for protein?
Biuret reagent / coper sulphate & sodium hydroxide
1156
True or false. Human chromosomes are found in the nucleus.
True
1157
Give two abiotic factors that you investigated, describe how you measured each one.
Abiotic factor
Temperature, Light intensity,
Air speed,
Water current, Humidity, ­
pH
Measured with ..
Thermometer
Light (Lux) meter
Anemometer
Flow meter
Hygrometer
Universal indicator or probe
1158
How did you obtain a thin piece of a sample of the cells and prepare it for examination under the microscope?
Cut or peel /with what / onto slide / into water //safety point / stain / cover slip / detail on cover slip                
1159
Briefly describe how viruses reproduce.
Entry / Use cell’s components / Synthesis / Assembly / Release
1160
What does animal plankton feed on?
Plant plankton (phytoplankton)
1161
Distinguish between the terms genotype and phenotype.
Genotype: genetic make-up or genes (alleles) present
Phenotype: expression of genotype (and environment) or physical make up
1162
Where in the nucleus would you find genes?
On the chromosomes
1163
Distinguish between autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition.
Autotrophic: Organisms that are capable of making (synthesising) their own food from inorganic compounds, e.g. all chlorophyll containing plants
Heterotrophic: Organisms that cannot make their own food. Depend on other organisms as sources of food, e.g. all animals, saprophytes and parasites
1164
What stain did you use on plant cells when examining them under the microscope?
Iodine solution
1165
Give examples of two harmful bacteria.
TB/ syphilis/ cholera/ tetanus/ sore throat/ names of bacteria/ etc.
1166
In stage 1 of respiration, glucose is partly broken down. Where in the cell does this happen?
Cytosol
1167
Give one way in which viruses are beneficial and one way in which they are harmful.
Beneficial – Disease control / specific example
Harmful – Cause diseases / specific example
1168
Distinguish between the terms segregation and independent assortment.
Segregation: only one (member) of a pair of alleles (or chromosomes) enters a gamete
Independent assortment: Either member of a pair of alleles (or chromosomes) can combine (or transmit) with either member of another pair (in gamete formation)
1169
What is meant by ground tissue?
Living plant cells making the soft parts of leaves, e.g. pith, cortex and spongy tissue.
1170
Describe how you applied the stain to cells when examining them under the microscope.
With a dropper / Under coverslip / method
1171
What is meant by tissue culture?
The growth of individual cells outside an organism.
1172
What is meant by excretion?
Removal of the waste products of metabolisms
1173
Why are saprophytic bacteria important in nature?
decompose dead organisms or recycle nutrients
1174
Give a function of ground tissue.
Food and waste storage, photosynthesis and also give strength and support.
1175
Explain the terms transcription and translation.
Transcription: making of (m)RNA using DNA (template)
Translation: making a protein using (m)RNA (code)
1176
The objective lenses on a microscope are usually labelled 40X, 10X, and 4X.
Which objective lens should you begin with when using the microscope?
4X / Low Power
1177
Name the vein connected to the lungs.
Pulmonary vein
1178
What is meant by osmoregulation?
controlling the osmotic pressure within an organism by regulating the amounts of salt and water present
1179
Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
Aerobic: The release of energy from carbohydrate using oxygen
Anaerobic: The release of energy from carbohydrate without using oxygen
1180
Where does filtration of blood take place within the kidney?
From the glomerulus into the capsular space of Bowman’s capsule in the cortex
1181
Suggest a reason why sterile conditions are needed in tissue culture.
to prevent bacterial growth or contamination
1182
Give one cell structure that you observed under the microscope that indicated that the cells you were looking at were plant cells.
Cell Wall / Chloroplast / (Large) Vacuole
1183
In which structures in the cell does translation occur?
Ribosome
1184
Distinguish clearly between pollination and fertilisation.
pollination – transfer of pollen
fertilisation – fusion of gametes or of sex cells
1185
Name the artery connected to the kidneys.
Renal artery
1186
Name the small gaps between neurons.
Synapses
1187
State three factors necessary for the germination of a seed.
Suitable temperature, Oxygen, Water
1188
The scientific method involves making a hypothesis, carrying out experiments, recording results, and forming conclusions. Why is it a good idea to repeat an experiment many times?
To verify results /(statistical) reliability/ minimise error
1189
What is saprophytic nutrition?
A type of heterotrophic nutrition where an organism obtains its food from dead or decaying organic matter
1190
How many bases in sequence make up a codon in mRNA?
Three
1191
What is a meristem?
A region of mitosis in a plant
1192
Briefly explain chemosynthesis.
formation of carbohydrates (food) from inorganic compounds without sunlight
1193
Name the vein that joins the intestine to the liver.
Hepatic portal vein
1194
Why is a control used when carrying out experiments?
To compare (with experiment)
1195
Name the gas needed to release energy to make a skin graft.
Oxygen
1196
Name two products excreted by the human.
Urea, carbon dioxide, salt, water
1197
Each mRNA codon specifies one of three possible outcomes during protein synthesis. Name these three possible outcomes.
Start / Adding an amino acid / Stop
1198
What is germination?
Is the beginning of the growth after a period of dormancy
1199
State a location in the seed where food is stored.
Cotyledon / endosperm
1200
For what purpose did you use Fehling’s solution or Benedict’s solution in the course of your practical activities?
To check for Glucose / reducing sugar
1201
What term is used for the organism from which a parasite obtains its food?
Host
1202
Give the precise location of the heart in the human body.
Thorax / slightly left of sternum
1203
Suggest the most suitable temperature to make skin cells grow for a skin graft.
37°C
1204
What does the letter ‘t’ stand for in tRNA?
Transfer
1205
Where does reabsorption of salt take place within the kidney?
medulla or Loop of Henle or convoluted tubule
1206
For what purpose did you use an anaerobic jar in the course of your practical activities?
To see if O2 is necessary for germination / to limit or reduce O2
1207
Give a location for a meristem.
Tip of shoots or roots
1208
Name one organ of excretion, other than the kidney, in the human body.
Lungs, skin
1209
Neurons produce neurotransmitter substances. What is their function?
to carry impulse/ across synapse (gap)
1210
What structure(s) protects the heart?
Pericardium / rib cage
1211
During translation one end of a tRNA molecule attaches to an mRNA codon. What is usually attached to the other end of the tRNA molecule?
An amino acid
1212
For what purpose did you use a cover slip in the course of your practical activities?
To examine a specimen / to reduce evaporation / to hold specimen in place / to protect lens or microscope
1213
Give a function of the guard cell.
Controls opening and closing of stomata
1214
An organ for churning of food to chime is the …
Stomach
1215
Symbiotic bacteria in the large intestine produce …
Vitamins B and K
1216
Biomolecules of the general formula Cx(H2O)y are examples of …
Carbohydrates
1217
What type of cell division, mitosis or meiosis, is involved in tissue culture?
Mitosis
1218
For what purpose did you use a buffer solution in the course of your practical activities?
To keep pH constant
1219
What are the two main events in the replication of DNA?
(DNA) opens (or unzips) / new strands (made)
1220
Name the upper chambers of the heart.
Atria or auricles
1221
Give two functions of water in a living organism.
Component of cytoplasm and body fluids / excellent solvent / most chemical reactions take place in water / reactant in photosynthesis / product of respiration / given off to the atmosphere in transpiration / component of sweat and urine / involved in osmosis /  helps control the shape of cells / needed for germination
1222
Is energy release a feature of anabolic or catabolic reactions?
Catabolic
1223
How do fats differ from oils at room temperature?
Fats are solid, oils are liquids
1224
For what purpose did you use Methylene blue in the course of your practical activities?
To stain (animal/plant) cells / nucleic acids
1225
Name the test or give the chemicals used to detect the presence of protein in a food sample.
Biuret test
Copper sulphate & sodium hydroxide
1226
Name the base in DNA that pairs with cytosine.
Guanine
1227
Name a structural polysaccharide.
Cellulose, chitin
1228
Name the valve between the upper and lower chambers on the left-hand side.
Bicuspid valve
1229
Name two gases that enter or leave the leaf.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide
1230
For what purpose did you use sodium alginate in the course of your practical activities?
To immobilise enzymes (or yeast cells) /to make beads
1231
To what organ does the ureter link the kidney?
Bladder
1232
Give an example of a reflex action in humans.
Knee jerk or ankle kerk
1233
What is a tropism?
Growth of a plant in response to a stimulus
1234
Waves of contractions passing along the gut is …
Peristalsis
1235
Give one other application of tissue culture apart from skin grafting.
Cancer research, plant propagation
1236
For what purpose did you use IAA in the course of your practical activities?
(To examine the effect of) growth regulators (on plants) / to stimulate plant growth / to inhibit plant growth.
1237
What is the average resting human heart rate?
72
1238
Give the names of the two processes involving DNA which take place during interphase.
uncoiling / transcription / replication or duplication
1239
Explain the term diploid number.
Chromosomes in pairs (two sets of chromosomes.)
1240
What is a plant growth regulator?
Controls the growth (of a plant)
1241
What type of teeth grinds food into smaller pieces?
Premolars and Molars
1242
For what purpose did you use freezer-cold alcohol in the course of your practical activities?
To bring DNA out of solution / to isolate DNA
1243
To which main blood vessel does the renal artery link the kidney?
Aorta
1244
What term is used to describe a group of disorders of the body in which cells lose the normal regulation of mitosis?
Cancer
1245
Give two factors which cause an increase in heart rate.
Exercise / stress / anxiety / drugs / infection
1246
As a result of her observations a scientist may formulate a … She will then progress her investigation by devising a series of … and then carefully analysing the resulting …
Hypothesis / Experiments / Data
1247
For which purpose did you use brown paper or Sudan III in food testing?
Test for fat (or lipid or oil)
1248
Answer the following questions in relation to your investigation into the growth of leaf yeast.
1.       From what plant did you obtain the yeast?
2.       Name the nutrient medium on which you grew the yeast.
1.        Any valid plant e.g. Ash / Privet …
2.        (nutrient) Agar
1249
Give a function of the myelin sheath.
Insulation of neurons / speeds up impulse transmission
1250
Name an enzyme that turns fats to fatty acids and glycerol.
Lipase
1251
For convenience of study, mitosis is divided into four stages. List these in order.
Prophase / Metaphase / Anaphase / Telophase
1252
Write a balanced equation to represent aerobic respiration.
C6H12O6 + 6O2 à E + 6CO2 + 6H2O
1253
Name the blood vessels that bring oxygen to the heart muscle.
Coronary arteries
1254
Outline the steps you followed to get the yeast cells onto the nutrient medium when investigating the growth of leaf yeast.
Leaf (or leaf section) stuck to lid / tweezers / stuck with what /of Petri dish / Yeast-side down / dish left agar-side down / 24 hours.
1255
For which purpose did you use Biuret solution or alkaline copper sulphate in food testing?
Test for (soluble) protein
1256
Which part of the female reproductive system is influenced by both FSH and LH?
Ovary
1257
Give two biological advantages of breastfeeding.
gives a baby all the nutrients it needs in exactly the right proportions for optimum development / is a source of antibodies which are passed on to the baby to protect it against allergies and illness / can cause a cessation of menstruation
1258
Why are reflex actions important in humans?
fast response or defence against injury
1259
What is the role of the motor neuron?
A nerve cell which carries an impulse from the CNS
1260
Answer the following questions in relation to your investigation into the growth of leaf yeast.
1.       How long did it take for the yeast to become visible on the nutrient medium?    
2.       How did you recognise the yeast?
1.        ≥ 72 hours / 3 days
2.        Pink colonies / spots
1261
Name the fluid present in the ureter.
Urine
1262
For which purpose did you use petroleum jelly in the investigation of the growth of leaf yeast on agar plates?
Attach leaves (or leaf parts)
1263
Explain why the walls of the lower chambers of the heart are thicker than the walls of the upper chambers.
They have to pump blood further
1264
What is a habitat?
The place where an organism lives
1265
Name the process by which the gases move in or out of the leaf.
Diffusion
1266
Describe one aseptic technique you carried out during the investigation of the growth of leaf yeast.
Swab bench with disinfectant / sterilise instrument / Petri dish face downwards on bench
1267
List three abiotic factors that you investigated.
Temperature, Light intensity, Air speed, Water current, Humidity, ­pH
1268
In the case of a named organism give an adaptation feature that you noted.
Greenfly / colour – camouflage
1269
For which purpose did you use antiseptic wash solution in the investigation of the growth of leaf yeast on agar plates?
To prevent contamination or described
1270
What substance emulsifies fats?
Bile
1271
Name the two vascular tissues found in a vascular bundle.
Xylem / phloem
1272
Name the coloured part of the eye.
Iris
1273
The first stage of respiration takes place in the cytosol. What is the cytosol?
Cytoplasm without the organelles
1274
Why is a control especially important in biological investigations?
As a standard for comparison
1275
Give an example of a growth regulator that promotes growth.
auxin or IAA or NAA or ethylene (ethene)
1276
For which purpose did you use freezer-cold ethanol while extracting DNA from plant tissue?
To separate (or see) the DNA
1277
What is meant by an enzyme’s optimum pH?
This is the pH at which an enzyme works best at.
1278
What is the function of the pupil in the eye?
To allow light in
1279
What is an ecosystem?
A community of living organisms interacting with one another and their environment
1280
Give one function of each of the following: 1. Dermal tissue, 2. Ground tissue
Dermal: protection or example of protection e.g. water loss, infection or comment on Turgor
Ground: food storage / storage of waste / photosynthesis / strength / support
1281
From your study of ecology explain the term fauna
Animals
1282
Waste management is a matter of growing concern in Ireland as the population expands. Outline three problems associated with waste disposal.
disease / pollution / toxins / smell / unsightly / other valid named problem
1283
Explain the following terms which are used in genetics: homozygous, recessive, phenotype
Homozygous: Has identical alleles [for a trait]
Recessive: Allele whose expression is masked by dominant allele
Phenotype: Physical appearance of an organism
1284
In which part of the eye would you find the rods and cones?
The Retina
1285
For which purpose did you use washing-up liquid or other detergent while extracting DNA from plant tissue?
(Detergent) breaks down membranes
1286
If a scientist wished to determine the effect of a certain herbicide on weed growth she would include a control in the investigation. Suggest a suitable control in this case.
no herbicide or implied
1287
Does the first stage of respiration release a small or large amount of energy?
Small amount
1288
From your study of ecology explain the term food web
Interconnected food chains or more than one species at each trophic level
1289
Suggest two methods of waste minimisation.
reduce consumption / reduce packaging / recycle / reuse
1290
What is the function of the cones in the retina of the eye?
To detect colour / Colour vision / Bright light
1291
In which of the vascular tissues does water transport occur?
Xylem
1292
What is the significance of the fact that the two allele pairs are located on different chromosome pairs?
they assort independently or greater variation
1293
For which purpose did you use an aquatic plant such as pondweed rather than a terrestrial plant when investigating the rate of photosynthesis?
To see (or measure ) gas (or bubbles) [negative for terrestrial plants]
1294
Distinguish between mechanical and chemical digestion.
Mechanical: Breakdown of food by physical means e.g. peristalsis
Chemical: Breakdown of food molecules by enzymes
1295
What are symbiotic bacteria?
Bacteria living in the colon / produce vitamins B2 and K / body absorbs these vitamins
1296
Choose a term from the following list to match the description.
Alcohol, Oxygen, Water, Mitochondria, Lactic acid, Large
A substance required for aerobic respiration.
Oxygen
1297
From your study of ecology explain the term biotic factor
Living (organism’s influence on another organism)
1298
Explain how the small intestine is adapted for the absorption of the products of digestion.
large surface area (folding) or good blood supply or lymph supply or (lining) one cell thick or long or villi or microvilli
1299
Where in the cell does the second stage of aerobic respiration take place?
Mitochondria
1300
State one way in which xylem is adapted for water transport.
Narrow / tubes / continuous / hollow
1301
For which purpose did you use methylene blue or iodine solution when examining cells with the microscope?
As a stain or to see more clearly
1302
Choose a term from the following list to match the description.
Alcohol, Oxygen, Water, Mitochondria, Lactic acid, Large
The amount of energy released in aerobic respiration.
Large
1303
What is meant by excretion?
Removal of the waste products of metabolism
1304
What does an ecologist mean by competition?
When two or more organisms fight for a resource that is in short supply
1305
From your study of ecology explain the term symbiosis
Relationship between (different) species in which at least one benefits
1306
From which blood vessel is the afferent arteriole derived?
Renal artery
1307
Name the part(s) of the digestive system in which the following are absorbed into the blood. 1. The products of digestion, 2. Water.
1. ileum or villi [allow duodenum or small intestine]
2. Colon [allow any named part from stomach onwards]
1308
Choose a term from the following list to match the description.
Alcohol, Oxygen, Water, Mitochondria, Lactic acid, Large
A product of anaerobic respiration in muscles.
Lactic acid
1309
Give an example of each of a growth regulator that inhibits growth.
auxin or IAA or NAA or abscisic acid or ethylene (ethene)
1310
What is a hypothesis?
Educated guess or (possible) explanation
1311
In which direction does water transport take place?
Up
1312
Give an example of waste produced in agriculture or fisheries or forestry and describe how it is managed.
Agriculture e.g. Slurry / dilute / on dry land / a fertilizer.
Fisheries e.g. Heads, neutralise waste / pulped and dried / fertiliser or pig feed.
Forestry e.g. Small branches / humus / Large branches / wood products.
1313
From your study of ecology explain the term habitat
(Place) where a species (or an organism) lives
1314
Choose a term from the following list to match the description.
Alcohol, Oxygen, Water, Mitochondria, Lactic acid, Large
A product of aerobic respiration.
Water
1315
What is fermentation?
Anaerobic respiration or production of alcohol from starch and sugars
1316
The use of replicates is an important aspect of scientific research. What, in this context, are replicates?
duplicates of an experiment or procedure
1317
What is meant by sex-linked?
Gene located on X- chromosome or on Y-chromosome
1318
Why is a control normally used when carrying out an experiment?
Comparison (with experiment)
1319
Name a process involved in the passage of the products of digestion into the blood.
Diffusion
1320
Choose a term from the following list to match the description.
Alcohol, Oxygen, Water, Mitochondria, Lactic acid, Large
A product of anaerobic respiration in yeast.
Alcohol
1321
Which organ is attached to the kidney by the ureter?
Bladder
1322
From your study of ecology explain the term ecosystem
Organisms and their (interactions with) environment
1323
What is a denatured enzyme?
An enzyme that has been destroyed by excessive heat, pH, etc. This enzyme will not 'work' again
1324
Urea and carbon dioxide are excretory products of the human body. In the case of each product name a substance from which it is derived.
Urea: protein or amino acid
Carbon dioxide: carbohydrate or named example or fat or named example of fat or fatty acids
1325
Name a structure in the human digestive system, other than teeth, which is involved in mechanical digestion
tongue or oesophagus or stomach or small intestine or named part of small intestine
1326
Choose a term from the following list to match the description.
Alcohol, Oxygen, Water, Mitochondria, Lactic acid, Large
The cell structures in which Stage 2 of aerobic respiration takes place.
Mitochondria
1327
Name the cavity of the body in which the heart and lungs are located.
Thoracic or chest
1328
Give one example of the use of micro-organisms in waste management.
landfill sites / sewage treatment plants / digesters / compost heaps
1329
Answer the following in relation to a lipase: 1. Where is it secreted? 2. Where does it act? 3. What is the approximate pH at its site of action?
1. pancreas
2. duodenum or small intestine or ileum
3. 7 - 9 inclusive
1330
From your study of ecology explain the term biosphere
Part(s) of earth that supports life
1331
In which part of the kidney does filtration of the blood occur?
From the glomerulus into the capsular space of Bowman’s capsule in the cortex
1332
True or False. The liver produces bile.
True
1333
Is oxygen required for the second stage of aerobic respiration?
Yes
1334
Suggest where a scientist may publish the results of her investigations.
(scientific) journal or named journal
1335
State one way in which heart muscle differs from other muscles in the body.
Doesn’t tire             [
1336
Give two activities of symbiotic bacteria in the human digestive system.
digestion / production of vitamins / benefit immune system / compete with other micro-organisms [allow one reference to harmful activity]
1337
Where in the kidney is Bowman’s Capsule located?
Cortex
1338
True or False. The semicircular canals in the ear are involved in balance.
True
1339
Name the openings in the leaf which allow the entry of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. State a factor which influences the diameter of these openings.
Stomata
light or CO2 or potassium ions (K+) or wind or turgidity of guard cells or water availability or high temperature
1340
Explain the term excretion.
Removal of the waste products of metabolism
1341
The genetic code is contained within the DNA of chromosomes. Briefly describe the nature of this code.
three bases (triplet or codon) / in sequence / (codes for) one amino acid /(base or triplet or codon) sequence / codes for protein
1342
What is a virus made up of?
Protein coat / Nucleic acid or DNA or  RNA
1343
Water enters the outermost cells of the root by osmosis. What does this tell you about the cell sap of these outermost cells?
lower water concentration or higher solute concentration
1344
True or False. The growth response of a plant to light is called phototropism.
True
1345
Give three roles of the skeleton.
support / movement / protection / anchorage for muscle / gives shape /
blood production
1346
Suggest a situation in which some cells in the human body may not be able to engage in the second stage of aerobic respiration
lack of oxygen or exercise or restricted blood supply
1347
Suggest two situations which may result in a drop in the water content of the blood.
infection / hot conditions or perspiration or exercise / high salt intake / low water intake / diuretic(s)
1348
Name two substances excreted by the kidneys.
Water / Salts / Urea
1349
Briefly describe how viruses reproduce.
Attachment / (viral) nucleic acid into (host) cell / uses host structures (or described) / part(s) replicated  / virus assembly / release (or lysis)
1350
True or False. Tendons attach bone to bone.
False
1351
During photosynthesis oxygen is produced.
1. From what substance is oxygen produced?
2. In which stage of photosynthesis is oxygen produced?
3. Give two possible fates of oxygen following its production.
1. water
2. light (dependent) stage
3. respiration / (diffuses) to atmosphere
1352
When the water content of the blood drops a hormone is released.
1.       Name this hormone and the endocrine gland from which it is secreted.
2.       Give a precise target area for this hormone.
3.       How does the hormone reach the target area?
4.       Explain the role of the hormone at its target area, when the water content of the blood is low.
1.ADH (vasopressin) / pituitary
2.distal tubule or collecting duct
3.in the blood
4.(makes walls) more permeable (resulting in) more absorption of water
1353
Describe how minerals such as nitrates enter the root of a plant from the soil.
Active transport
1354
What is meant by non-coding DNA?
does not code for a protein or for RNA
1355
In photosynthesis water (H2O) is split into three products.
1. Name these three products.
2. State what happens to each of these products.
1. protons (H+) / electrons / oxygen
2. electrons pass to chlorophyll / ATP /
protons stored / NADPH / used in dark phase
oxygen released into air/ respiration
1356
True or False. A motor neuron carries impulses to the brain.
False

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